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Home-Loney-Background-Niger expedition-Book Appendix (part 3) *  Volume II

A NARRATIVE
OF THE
EXPEDITION TO THE RIVER NIGER
.

VOLUME I, APPENDIX (part 4).


[Initial numbers of officers and crew]

STATEMENT of the Number of Officers and Crews of the Vessels comprising the Niger Expedition, when they commenced their Ascent of the Niger, August 20th, 1841.

  Albert Wilberforce Soudan Amelia Total
Europeans:-
  Officers 14 10 9 3 36
  Civilians 1 8 - - 9
  Engineers 3 3 2 - 8
  Stokers 4 3 4 - 11
  Remainder or crew 29 33 15 4 81
Coloured:-
  Civilian (West Indian) - 1 - - 1
  Men entered in England 14 7 3 - 24
  Men entered in Africa 44 37 18 9 108
Total 109 102 51 16 *278

* This number includes the interpreters, but not the men, women and children, belonging to the Model Farm, 21 of whom were in the 'Amelia,' and 2 in the 'Wilberforce.'


[Note: the lists below contain a number of errors (for example "J.R.H. Thompson" and "Dr F.R. Vogel" in Wilberforce); I have not corrected these.]

Her Majesty's Steam-Vessel 'Albert'

List of European Officers and Crew, and of Coloured Men entered in England, belonging to Her Majesty's Steam-Vessel 'Albert' when she commenced her ascent of the Niger, August 20, 1841.

Officers
  Name Rank
  H.D. Trotter Captain
  E.G. Fishbourne Lieutenant
* D.H. Stenhouse Lieutenant and Assistant-Surveyor; died 28th October, 1841, at Fernando Po
* Geo. B. Harvey Master; died 2nd October, 1841, on board the 'Wilberforce' at Fernando Po
Theodore Müller Chaplain (Chaplain to the Commissioners, and Arabic Interpreter)
  J.O. McWilliam M.D. Surgeon (Surgeon to the Commissioners)
* James Woodhouse Assistant-Surgeon; died 30th of October, 1841, at Fernando Po
* F.D. Nightingale Assistant-Surgeon (in 'Amelia'); died 17th of September, 1841, on board the 'Albert,' at the confluence
  William Bowden Purser (Secretary to the Commissioners)
* William C. Willie Mate; died 18th of October, 1841, at Fernando Po
  James W. Fairholme Mate (in 'Amelia')
  R.T. Saunders Second Master
  W.R. Bush Clerk
* W.H. Wilmett Clerk; died 5th of November, 1841, at Fernando Po
  Richard Mouat Assistant-Clerk (extra Clerk to the Commissioners)
  William Merriman Gunner
  John Langley Engineer, 1st class
* Albion Lodge Engineer, 2nd class; drowned 8th of October, 1841, in the River Niger, when labouring under river fever
  James Brown Engineer, 2nd class
Civilian
  Name Rank
William Stanger, M.D. Geologist and Explorer
Ship's Company
(Europeans)
  Name Rank
* John Fuge Captain of the forecastle (in 'Amelia'); died 29th of September, 1841, in River Niger
* William M'MillanQuarter-Master; died 27th of September, 1841, on board Her Majesty's brigantine 'Dolphin,' on passage to Ascension
 Robert Thomas Stoker
  Henry Davey Carpenter's mate
John M'Clintock Stoker; died 21st November, 1841, at Fernando Po
  Thomas Ashcroft Quarter-Master
  James Haughton Gunner's mate (in 'Amelia')
* John Peglar Armourer and stoker; died 6th September, 1841, in River Niger
* Ellis Jones Quarter-Master; died 26th September, 1841, on board Her Majesty's brigantine 'Dolphin,' on passage to Ascension
  Edward Capps Captain's steward
  John Duncan Master-at-arms
John Huxley Sick-berth attendant
* John Burgess Quarter-Master; died 14th September, 1841, in the River Niger
  Thomas Ward Gun-room steward
  Charles Loader Caulker
* Lewis Wolfe Yeoman of signals; died 27th September, 1841, on board 'Soudan,' at Fernando Po
* Robert Millward Purser's steward; died 22nd October, 1841, at Fernando Po
Richard Lamb Gentlemen's steward
* James Robertson Stoker; died 17th September, 1841, at the confluence
  William Vine Blacksmith
  James May Boatswain's mate
Archibald Yair Sick-berth attendant
  James Worwood Able seaman
* George Powell Cooper; died 11th September, 1841, in River Niger
* George Symes Captain of forecastle; died 2nd October, 1841, in River Niger
Marines
Charles Hodges Serjeant
* John Waller Corporal (in 'Amelia'); died 26th September, 1841, on board Her Majesty's brigantine 'Dolphin,' on passage to Ascension
* Henry Gibson Private; died April, 1842, in Ascension Hospital
* George Cole Private; died 17th October, 1841, near Fernando Po
  James Barrett Drummer
Morgan Kinson Private; died 6th November, 1841, at Fernando Po
  Benjamin Saunders Private
  John Syms Private
Sappers and Miners
  Tobias Edmunds Corporal (lance serjeant)
  James Craig Private (lance corporal)
  Daniel Carlton Private
* William Moffat Private; (in 'Amelia,') died 26th September, 1841, on board Her Majesty's brigantine 'Dolphin,' on passage to Ascension

* Died from river fever or its effects
† Escaped the river fever
‡ Escaped the river fever, but died from the effects of climate on an impaired constitution

Coloured Men entered in England
Place born   Name Rating
Guinea   William Oakley Captain's cook
Calcutta   Emanuel Mandulee Gun-room servant
West Indies John Williams Captain's servant
Bombay   William Underwood Gun-room servant
Halifax   Richard Wilson Engineer's servant
Gambia William Guy Able seaman
Kru Country Jack Be-Off Ordinary seaman
Gambia Richard Harry Boy
Sierra Leone Andrew Williams Able seaman
Jamaica   Edward Henderson Sick-berth cook
Antigua John Robertson Stoker
  Thomas Johnson Ordinary seaman
Eboe James Graft Stoker
Sierra Leone James Carroll Stoker

† Escaped the river fever

N.B.- The 'Albert' lost after leaving England, Samuel Johnson, Captain of the forecastle, and John William Bach, mathematical instrument maker; the former was killed at sea by falling from the fore-yard on the 3rd July, 1841; the latter died of fever (not of an endemical kind) at the mouth of the River Nun, on the 15th of August, 1841.

Her Majesty's Steam-Vessel 'Wilberforce'

List of European Officers and Crew, and of Coloured Men entered in England, belonging to Her Majesty's Steam-Vessel 'Wilberforce' when she commenced her ascent of the Niger, August 20, 1841.

Officers
  Name Rank
  William Allen Commander
James N. Strange Lieutenant
  Henry C. Harston Lieutenant (in 'Amelia')
  William Forster Master
Morris Pritchett, M.D. Surgeon
J.R.H. Thomson Assistant-Surgeon
John Stirling Assistant-Surgeon
* Cyrus Wakeham Purser; died 27th September, 1841, River Nun
  Henry C. Toby Mate
  W.H.T. Green Second Master and Assistant-Surveyor
J.H.R. Webb Clerk
  William Johnston Engineer, 1st class
  Joseph Graystock Engineer, 2nd class
  George Garritte Engineer, 3rd class
Civilians
William Cook Commissioner
  J.E. Terry Chief Clerk to Commissioners
  William Simpson Clerk to Commissioners
Rev. J.F. Schön Missionary, of the Church Missionary Society of England
* Dr. F.R. Vogel Botanist; died 17th December, 1841, Fernando Po
  C.G. Roscher Miner and Geologist
  Lewis Frazer Naturalist
  Alfred Carr Superintendent of model farm (a West Indian of colour)
  John Ansell Collector of Plants
Ship's Company
(Europeans)
  Henry Collins Blacksmith
* Peter Fitzgerald Stoker; died 2nd October, 1841, Fernando Po
  John Bailey Cooper
  John Wilson Captain's cook
  Richard Smythers Gun-room steward
  Henry Hillier Carpenter's mate
David Douglass Gentlemen's steward
  F.J. Gurney Gunner's mate
  James M'Cluskey Stoker
Michael Walsh Carpenter's crew
John Waddington Quarter-Master
  James Carr Stoker
  George Crofts Quarter-Master
  Absolam Delavante Arabic interpreter
  William Funge Able seaman
  Joseph Hopkins Sail maker
  Edwin Hoskin Purser's steward
  George Boys Captain of the foretop
  William Ward Captain of the forecastle
* James Kneebone Ordinary Seaman; died 11th September, 1841, River Niger
* William Allford Ordinary seaman; died 31st October, 1841
  Richard James Ordinary seaman
  William Lucas Boatswain's mate
Marines
* George Cuthbertson Serjeant; died 11th October, 1841, on board, off Prince's Island
  William Jones Private
  Daniel Bloomfield Private
  John Bealey, alias Veley Private
  William Ford Private
  John Osborne Corporal
  Samuel Hill Private
  Thomas Roberts Private
  William Day Private
Sappers and Miners
  William Martin Second Corporal (Lance Serjeant)
  James Cotter Private
* William Rabling Private; died 14th December, 1841, at the confluence
  Henry Rosemergy Private

* Died from river fever or its effects
† Escaped the river fever
‡ Died on the second ascent of 'Wilberforce' under Lieut. Webb

Coloured Men entered in England
Place born   Name Rating
Barbadoes John Garner Captain's steward
St. John's, America James Case Able seaman
Gambia John Dennis Able seaman
Jamaica William Scott Ship's cook
Haussa James Peters Ordinary seaman
Jamaica William Jackson Engineer's servant
Cape Coast Lewis Asasa Ordinary seaman

† Escaped the river fever
The fever with which these men were attacked in the river assumed the character of intermittent: they had previously had remittent fever on the coast before entering the river.

N.B.- The 'Wilberforce' lost, after leaving England, John Morley, carpenter's mate, and Henry Halbert, able seaman, (a coloured man;) the former was drowned at St. Vincent, Cape de Verde Islands, on the 10th of June, 1841; the latter died on the coast of fever on the 23rd of July, 1841. Another coloured man, David Wright, seaman, died of apoplexy on the 22nd July, 1841.

Her Majesty's Steam-Vessel 'Soudan'

List of European Officers and Crew, and of Coloured Men entered in England, who were on board Her Majesty's Steam-Vessel 'Soudan' when she commenced her ascent of the Niger on the 20th August, 1841.

Officers
  Name Rank
* Bird Allen Commander; died 25th October, 1841 Fernando Po
  William Ellis Lieutenant
  John Belam Master
* W.B. Marshall Surgeon; died 21st September, 1841, River Nun
* H.C. Collman Assistant-Surgeon; died 6th October, 1841, Fernando Po
  W.H. Webb Mate
  F.W. Sidney Mate and Assistant-Surveyor
* Nicolas Waters Clerk in charge of provisions; died 22nd September,1841, River Niger
* William Kingdon Assistant Clerk and Schoolmaster; died 13th of October, 1841, River Niger
  G.V. Gustaffson Engineer, 1st class
  William Johnson Engineer, 2nd class
Ship's Company
(Europeans)
* Christopher Bigley Stoker; died 2nd October, 1841, Fernando Po
  John Perram Stoker
  William Strain Gentlemen's steward
* John Kirrens Stoker; died 27th September, 1841, Her Majesty's brigantine 'Dolphin,' on passage to Ascension
* John Whittaker Quarter-Master [died 29th September, 1841 in 'Dolphin,' on passage to Ascension; not given here]
* Charles Levinge Captain's steward; died 9th September, 1841, River Niger
  John Davis Captain's coxwain
* William M'Lackland Sailmaker; died 24th November,1841, in 'Warree,' on passage to England
  Cornelius Trower Stoker
* John Young Quarter-Master; died 27th September, 1841, Her Majesty's brigantine 'Dolphin,' on passage to Ascension
* James Thomas Carpenter's crew; died 21st September, 1841, River Niger
  John Straman Able seaman
  John Wood Gunner's mate
  Henry Dennis Boatswain's mate
* James HillGun-room steward; died 25th September, 1841, Her Majesty's brigantine 'Dolphin,' on passage to Ascension
Marines
  Hugh Isaacs Corporal
  Richard Pitham Gunner, Royal Marine Artillery
  John Hibberd Private
  Philip Tyack Private

* Died from river fever or its effects.

Coloured Men entered in England
Place born   Name Rating
Dominique, West Indies   John Gray Sick-berth attendant
Tortola, West Indies   Michael King Purser's steward
Gambia, Africa * George Lee Able seaman
St. Thomas, Africa James Vaux Able seaman

* Escaped the river fever.
† Had remittent fever in the river, but not of the same kind as attacked the Europeans.

N.B.- The 'Soudan' lost, after leaving England, Richard Edwards, Purser's steward (a coloured man) who was drowned at sea 20th May, 1841.


ESTIMATE OF EXPENSES

[not reproduced here]


VITAL STATISTICS OF THE EXPEDITION AT ITS CLOSE

Statistical Account of the Cases of Fever that actually occurred on board H.M.S. Albert, (including Amelia tender and Model Farm), Wilberforce, and Soudan, while the vessels were in the Niger: showing also where the deaths took place*.

H.M.S. Albert, including Amelia Tenders and Model Farm.
Albert in the river 64 days.
Number of officers, white seamen, marines, and sappers 62†
Of whom were attacked with fever in the Niger55, or 1 in 1.127
Died on board the Albert9
" Wilberforce9
" Soudan1
" Dolphin4
" Merchant ship Warree1
Died at Fernando Po Sick Quarters6
" Royal Naval Hospital, Ascension1=23
Ratio of deaths in total number victualled1 in 2.696
" in number of cases1 in 2.391
Men of colour of various nations entered in England15‡
" attacked with fever in Niger6, or 1 in 2.500
Blacks entered on the coast76
" attacked with fever in river0

* These Tables are wholly irrespective of the ships to which the officers, seamen, &c., belonged. They are intended to denote on board of what ships they were first seized with fever: and in what ships, or where the deaths took place. Without some plan of this nature, it would be impossible to convey a clear idea of the vital statistics of the expedition; seeing that at the Confluence the distribution of the crews of the squadron was considerably changed.

† Adding Captain B. Allen, Mr. Webb, mate, and William McLauchlan, sailmaker, of Soudan, who joined before the Albert left the Confluence to proceed upwards, and were taken ill immediately afterwards: also Mr. Kingdon, schoolmaster, and Mr. Ansell, collector, who were received on board in a dangerous state from fever, when the Albert was at the Confluence on her way out of the river, and deducting Lieut. Fishbourne.

‡ Adding one received at Confluence when the Albert was descending the river.

H.M.S. Wilberforce; in the River 45 days.
Number of officers, white seamen, marines, and sappers 56*
Of whom were attacked with fever in the Niger48, or 1 in 1.666
Died on board the Wilberforce6
" at Fernando Po Sick Quarters1=7
Ratio of deaths in total number victualled1 in 8.000
" in number of cases1 in 6.857
Men of colour of various nations entered in England7†
" attacked with fever in Niger3, or 1 in 2.500
Blacks entered on the coast39

H.M.S. Soudan; in the River 40 days.
Number of officers, white seamen, marines, and sappers 27‡
Of whom were attacked with fever in Niger27, or 1 in 1.000
Died on board the Soudan5
" Wilberforce1
" Dolphin4=10
Ratio of deaths in total number victualled1 in 2.700
Men of colour of various nations entered in England3
" attacked with fever in Niger2, or 1 in 1.500
Blacks entered on the coast18
" attacked with fever in river0

* Deducing Mr. Ansell.

† Deducing the officer of colour received on board Albert at Model Farm.

‡ Including Lieut. Fishbourne, who joined at the Confluence, before descending the river.

Statistical Summary deduced from the above Tables Albert &c. Wilberforce Soudan Total
Total number of whites 62 56 27 145
Cases of fever among ditto 55 48 27 *130
Deaths among ditto 23 7 10 40
Number of blacks 91 46 21 158
Cases of fever 6 3 2 11
H.M.S. Wilberforce on her return to the Coast in 1842
Died of fever 1
Wilberforce's Second Voyage up the Niger in July, 1842
Number of whites on board 8
Number attacked with fever 7, or 1 in 1.140
Deaths in number on board from after-effects 2, or 1 in 4.000
Ditto in number of cases 1 in 3.500

* Names of those who escaped the Fever in the Niger.
Albert: William Stanger, M.D., geologist, suffered afterwards from intermittent in England. Theodore Muller, Chaplain, left the river at the Confluence.
Charles Hodges, Serjeant, Marines, was frequently unwell afterwards from head-ach, but was a good deal relieved by ulcers breaking out in the legs.
Morgan Kinson, P. Marine, died of gastritis at Fernando Po.
John Huxley, sick-berth attendant, had a severe fever seven weeks after leaving the river at Fernando Po.
William Lamb, mid-steward, ditto, ditto.
Archibald Yair, sick-berth attendant, left at the Confluence in Soudan, and was quite well throughout.
Wilberforce. William Cook, Commissioner, left the river in Wilberforce.
James N. Stange, Lieutenant (now Commander), ditto, ditto.
Morris Pritchett, M.D., Surgeon, ditto, ditto.
James F. Schon, Chaplain, ascended to Egga in Albert.
T.R.H. Thomson, Assistant-Surgeon (now Surgeon), left the river in Soudan. Suffered much from intermittent fever on his return to England.
John Stirling, Assistant-Surgeon, left the river in the Soudan.
Walsh, carpenter's crew, left the river in the Wilberforce.
Douglas, mid-steward, ditto, ditto.

RETURN OF THE TOTAL MORTALITY, stated under the respective Ships to which the Officers, Seamen, Marines, &c. belong, from the time the Expedition left England to its completion.

  Albert, including the Amelia &c. Wilberforce Soudan  
Officers, including Engineers White Seamen, Marines and Sappers Kroomen, liberated Africans &c. Total Officers, including Engineers White Seamen, Marines and Sappers Kroomen, liberated Africans &c. Total Officers, including Engineers White Seamen, Marines and Sappers Kroomen, liberated Africans &c. Total Grand total
Average complement 21 37 88 146 21 36 49 106 11 19 21 51 303
Deaths from fever contracted on the coast - - - - 1 - 1 2 - - - - 2
Deaths from fever contracted on the river 6 14 - 20 3 6 - 9 5 8 - 13 42
Accidents 1 2 1 4 - 1 - 1 - - - - 3
Other complaints - 2 - 2 - - 1 1 - - - - 3
  7 18 1 26 4 7 2 13 5 8 1 14 53


DR. STANGER'S GEOLOGICAL REPORT
TO THE
AFRICAN CIVILIZATION SOCIETY.

[illustration: Geological Section]

In the following notes, scanty in consequence of the unfortunate circumstances under which the country was visited, I beg leave to communicate to the Society, the geological phenomena which came under my notice, during the exploration of 340 miles of the river Niger, from the mouth of the Nun branch of that river to Egga.

The Delta, a flat tract, composed of clay and sand, in some places containing mica and much vegetable matter, extends 120 miles up to Eboe. The banks in this part are elevated only a few feet above the level of the river, and the country in the interior is swampy. Within the reach of the tidal waters, mangrove trees abound and a few palms, but beyond this point, the surface is covered with dense forests of the Bombax, and other large trees. From the mineral character of the soil of this part, I prognosticated granite would be found in the upper part of the river.

From Eboe to lldah, a distance of 100 miles, there is a gradual rise of country, and the land is higher on the sides of the river, but still very swampy, and the soil of the same character as in the Delta. There are no hard rocks in this part of the country, the cliffs of Iddah being the first which occur. These cliffs are 185 feet high, (barometrical measurement,) and are composed of sandstone, the strata of which are for the most part horizontal, but occasionally dip at an angle of 3° S.E. {Along the west coast of Africa, at Accra, and perhaps Sierra Leone and Monrovia, is a sandstone of the same character, which at Accra is horizontally stratified, and may possibly be connected with the same rock as that observed on the banks of the Niger.}

From Adda-Kudda up the river, as far as examined, the sandstone. The sandstone is fine granite, and composed of transparent particles of white quartz. The upper beds are highly ferruginous. The strata are cut through by joints running in all directions. In a cave north-east of Iddah, the sandstone occurs in horizontal strata, and shows well the appearance of false stratification, being cut across diagonally and very regularly by numerous parallel lines, having the appearance shown in the section A; between the diagonal lines, there is a thin layer of peroxide of iron

After very careful examination, only one obscure fossil, having some resemblance to a Pollicipes, was detected in the sandstone. The cliffs of Iddah are formed by the outcrop of a ridge of hills running N.E. and S.W.

From Iddah to Kirri, the country is composed of the same sandstone, which is more or less ferruginous in places, and which forms elevated table-lands, bounded by cliffs and masses of debris.

At Kirri, mica slate occurs, dipping at an angle of 85° west. Thess strata on the right bank stand up in high masses, having the appearance of leaning walls. Opposite Kirri, in the bed of the river, is the "Bird rock," which is a mass of white quartz evidently embedded in the mica slate. From Kirri to Adda-Kudda, the hills are granite, on the south side of which the mica slate rests, but the point of junction from the river could not be seen. These hills, which have been called the "Kong Mountains," do not attain a height of more than 1200 feet, of which Mount Soracte appears to be the highest. Beaufort Island is of granite, much decomposed on the surface, which is rough from the projection of felspar crystals. This granite contains little mica, and is composed of felspar and quartz, with a small quantity of hornblende. The blocks of granite are piled one upon another like masonry, and the soil between them is a rich loam. At Okaze, the granite is large crystalline, and contains very beautiful opalescent felspar.

At Adda-Kudda, the granite is mixed up and complicated with gneiss, which generally dips at an angle of 60° to the south. The granite forms veins running into the gneiss in all directions. and in some places the granite contains embedded masses of gneiss. From Adda-Kudda up the river, as far as examined, the sandstone occurred in horizontal strata as before, but generally more highly ferruginous.

At Stirling Hill, the peroxide of iron occurs in great abundance, in form of "pea-iron ore," of a very beautiful character.

Mount Patteh, which is 1160 feet high, is the commencement of the table-land "on the north side of the granite," which appears to be the character of the country above this place.

From the preceding facts the following conclusions may be drawn:

The granite is the central axis, mica slate and gneiss occurring on each side and dipping at great angles.

The sandstone lies unconformably on the mica slate and gneiss, as shown in the ideal section of the river.

The phenomena observed indicate three geological periods.
1st. The eruption of granite and elevation of mica slate and gneiss.
2nd. The deposition of the sandstone unconformably on the flanks of the mica slate and granite.
3rd. The upraising of the whole country, and the cutting through of the granite and the sandstone; the destruction of which at a more recent period, would afford the materials for the formation of the Delta, such as we now find composing it.

(Signed) WM. STANGER.


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