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The Queens Regulations and the Admiralty Instructions - 1861


CHAPTER XIX.

NAVIGATION AND PILOTAGE.

1.

The Captain is responsible for the safe conducting and steering of the Ship.

The Master, under the direction of the Captain, is to have the charge of the navigation of the Ship; and whenever the Ship is approaching the land, or any shoals, the Captain is to take care that the Master shall keep a good look-out upon deck; and that deep-sea soundings are always taken in good time on such occasions, and continued until the safety of the Ship's position be clearly ascertained and secured.

2.

When a Ship is in pilot-water, or in the vicinity of land, or rocks, or shoals, the Captain is always to take particular care, whether the Master or Pilot think it necessary or not, that the hand-lead be kept constantly going, not only with a view of obtaining soundings, when they may be expected, as a guide for conducting the Ship, but also as a precaution against any mistakes of the Pilot, or any irregularities of the tides; and it is to be kept going even in the most frequented channels.

The Captain is to observe that it is not sufficient, under the above circumstances, to station a leadsman in the chains to keep the lead going, but that, at the same time, the rate of the Ship should be reduced (where there is a possibility of doubt) to such a speed as shall ensure the leadsman getting correct soundings at every cast; and, in case of a ship touching the ground, these points are to be fully inquired into by the Court-Martial.

If it shall appear that the Ship has been run on shore, or brought into danger of being run on shore, or wrecked, and that there has been any want of due care or precaution, or that the foregoing orders have been disobeyed, the Captain will be held responsible for the same.

3.

In the event of the Ship touching the ground, the Captain is, by the first opportunity that offers, to transmit a statement to the Secretary of the Admiralty (through his Commander-in-chief, if he be serving under one), of every particular relative thereto, mentioning the rate at which she was going over the ground at the time she struck, - the exact period during which she remained on shore, - the nature of the bottom, - the means taken to get her off, - the injury he supposes she has received, - the direction and force of the wind, - the state of the weather, sea, and tide, - the Ship's draught, forward and aft, as nearly as it can be ascertained, - and the least depth of water under the stern, under the bows, and amidships, at any time during which she remained on shore. This statement is to be signed by the Captain and the Master, or where no Master is borne, by the Second Master; it is to be accompanied by a copy of the log, - and a track chart, commencing from the date when the Ship last left port, - and, if possible, by a clear and comprehensive plan of the place where the accident occurred.

4.

When a Court-Martial is appointed to inquire into the cause of the loss of a Ship, or of her having touched the ground, the following points are invariably to be attended to, in addition to the customary investigation:-

I. The Ship's log-book, deck log-book, Captain's night order book, and the chart by which she was navigated, are to be produced in Court.

ii. An investigation is to be made to ascertain whether the proper chart from the chart box has been used; and if the position of the Ship by observation, or otherwise, was accurately ascertained at the noon previous to the accident, or by any subsequent observations; and, if not, when it was last correctly ascertained; and whether the courses steered by the Standard Compass, corrected for local deviation, and distances run for the day previous to the Ship grounding, have been correctly inserted in the log-book. Also when the Ship was last swung for local deviation.

iii. The Master, or other competent Officer of the Ship on board of which the Court-martial is held, is to be directed to work up the reckoning of the Ship from the previous noon, or from subsequent observation (or from such further period before the previous noon as the Court shall require, to enable them to fix the true position of the Ship), to the time of her taking the ground; the result of this work is to be delivered to the Court in writing, attested by the signature of such Officer, and to the accuracy of which he is to be sworn. The position of the Ship, so determined, is to be laid off on the chart by which she was navigated; also the position of the Ship when ashore, as determined by cross bearings, as noted in the log-book. The rate and direction of the tide stream, and the time of tide, should also, if possible, be stated.

iv. The documents referred to in the preceding section, with an attested copy of the log, commencing at least forty-eight hours before the Ship touched the ground, are to accompany the minutes of the Court-Martial.

v. Certain of the Officers, superior and subordinate, being required to keep an account of the Ship's way, and to take the necessary observations for ascertaining the latitude and longitude, inquiry is to be instituted as to how far the Admiralty directions on this head have been either observed or neglected.

vi. If land was seen, and the distance from it estimated before the Ship struck, it is to be ascertained what steps were taken, during the time it was in sight, to check the estimated distance by the run of the Ship.

5.

Whenever there may be occasion to anchor, the Captain is to be extremely careful to cause the Ship to be placed in a safe berth, and so as not to endanger any other Ship which may be already anchored. If he anchor in a port or road to which he is a stranger, and of which he has no accurate chart, he is to direct the Master to sound for the distance of at least three cables' length round the Ship, to inform himself whether the bottom be clear of rocks, and whether the anchorage be fit for the Ship to ride in; and the bearings of any remarkable points of land, or other distinguishable objects, from the place where the Ship anchors, are to be inserted in the log-book: also the depth of water and nature of the bottom at her anchorage.

6.

A Pilot when taken on board any one of Her Majesty's Ships for a temporary service, is to be borne on the books as a supernumerary for victuals, and to be discharged as soon as the service for which he was engaged is performed, - the Captain giving him a certificate according to the form in the Paymaster's Instructions, on which, (if on the home station) payment will be made to him by the Admiralty. If a Pilot be employed on any service requiring his permanent residence on board (in which case a special agreement is to be made by the Captain with him in writing, in the presence of a witness, specifying particularly the rate of pay to which he is to be entitled, which rate is to be certified to by competent persons residing at the place where the Pilot is engaged, as being the proper and usual rate for the services to be performed), he is to be borne as above, and paid by the Paymaster of the Ship, at the end of each month on the Captain's certificate, stating the whole of the service, &c., performed within the period.

At those places abroad where payments on the certificates referred to cannot be made by a resident Naval Accountant Officer, or Consul, the Paymaster of the Ship is, under the authority of the Captain, to make the payment out of the contingent money in his charge, or, if he have not sufficient money in hand, by bill on the Accountant-General of the Navy, drawn in the usual manner, at seven days' sight. The Certificates may, if necessary, be given in duplicate or in triplicate, but in order to prevent more than one payment being made thereon, they must all be addressed to the same person or place, and be marked across with the word Original, Duplicate, or Triplicate, as the case may be; and when the sum to be paid depends upon special agreement, an attested copy of such agreement is to be attached to, and transmitted into office with the original voucher.

7.

The Captain is to order everything that relates to the navigating of the Ship to be performed as the Pilot shall require; but, nevertheless, he and the Master are to attend particularly to his conduct; and if, from his or the Master's observations, he shall have reason to believe the Pilot not qualified to conduct the Ship, or that he is running her into danger, he is to remove him from his charge, and to take such measures for the safety of the Ship as circumstances may require, noting the time of the Pilot's being so removed in the Ship's log-book; and if the Ship be damaged at any time through the ignorance or negligence of the Pilot; but where a common degree of attention on the part of the Captain and Master would have prevented the disaster, those Officers will be deemed to have neglected their duty.

8.

The Captain is to order a berth to be enclosed for the Pilot, in a situation convenient for his attending to his duty; and shall direct that he be furnished, during his stay on board, with a hammock and bedding; and shall see that he is treated with proper attention and respect. Pilots are to mess at the Ward room table, or with the Warrant Officers, as the Captain may direct. Five shillings per diem will be allowed to the Ward-room mess, and three shillings and sixpence per diem to the Warrant Officers' mess, for the entertainment of a Pilot; and payment of this allowance is to be made by the Paymaster, on the application of the Caterer of the mess, approved by the Captain.

9.

No unlicensed Pilots are to be allowed to take charge of Her Majesty's Ships, except in cases of necessity, when licensed or regular Pilots cannot be obtained, and in such cases particular caution is to be observed by the Captain and Master to guard against such unlicensed Pilot running the Ship into danger.

Whenever it is found necessary to engage the services of any Fisherman or Boatman to pilot one of Her Majesty's Ships, or to render assistance in any other manner, the Captain is, before engaging such Fisherman or Boatman, to make an agreement with him in writing, or, if that be not possible under the circumstances, a verbal agreement, in the presence of a witness, specifying the sum to be paid for the service, and that it is in full of all demands. The agreement, when made in writing, should be signed both by the Captain and the person to be engaged, and, if the latter cannot sign his name, his mark should be attested by some person on board; the terms are to be noted in the Ship's log, and, if not in writing, to be specially reported to the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer.

10.

A Pilot is not to be employed, except for ports, or channels which are difficult of access, or of which there are not charts on board, - or into which the Master declares he is not qualified to take the Ship. If the Master declines to take the Ship into a port which is easy of access, or for which the chart ought to be sufficient guide, the employment of a Pilot will be allowed on the first occasion, but the expense of any subsequent employment will be charged against the Master's pay. The Captain is to note on the certificate given to the Pilot in such cases the reason why the Master did not take charge. Her Majesty's Ships have the right to demand the services of any Trinity House or other Pilot not otherwise engaged at the time, but no Pilot can claim the right of piloting any Ship belonging to Her Majesty, unless the Officer in command of such Ship be of opinion that his services are necessary. If, however, the regulations of a foreign port require that a Pilot for a ship of war should be paid for, whether employed or not, the Captain, after ascertaining from the Consul that such is actually the case, is to conform with the regulations.

11.

When it may be found necessary to employ one Ship to tow another, only one Pilot is to be paid, except in extraordinary cases, the particulars of which are to be noted on the certificates; and the payment for pilotage will be made only to the Master or Pilot, of either of the ships, to whom the senior Officer shall think fit to give charge; and such Master or Pilot may be directed by the senior Officer to be in whichever Ship he may consider most advantageous under the circumstances of the service to be performed.

12.

At places where there is a Naval Establishment in charge of a Superintendent, all applications for Pilots are to be made to that Officer.

13.

Under ordinary circumstances the Master is to be considered as the Pilot of the Ship, and for his services in conducting her into ports, or through channels, which are neither easy of access, nor for which the charts are of themselves sufficient guide, he will be allowed such remuneration as the Admiralty may from time to time think fit to award, and the amount to be awarded will be determined by the considerations whether the Master saved the expense of a Pilot, and whether, in case he got his knowledge of the port by his own observations, he has sent to the Admiralty, in his Remark Book, the requisite information for the benefit of others. The pilotage certificates, granted by the Captain to the Master for services in his own ship, are to be sent into office with the Master's Annual Remark Book.

No Master will be paid for more than six times in and six times out, for any one port or channel, during one commission of a ship in which he may be serving. After the Master has visited any port six times, it is expected that he will undertake the pilotage as part of his ordinary duty.

A Master is not limited as to the number of times he may claim for piloting other than his own ship into any one place, and such claims may be made immediately, and not kept back to be sent into office with his Remark Book.

A list of the places which the Admiralty may from time to time consider so easy of access, or so sufficiently marked out on the charts, as to bar any claim for pilotage, will be inserted in future reprints of the "Admiralty Pilots." For those places it is expected that no Pilots should be required, and if the Captain finds it necessary to employ them, the Admiralty may direct the expense to be charged against the Master's pay.

No pilotage allowances will be given except for rivers, nor, unless under very special circumstances, for any services performed in steam vessels drawing less than ten feet water.

Every pilotage certificate given to a Master should state whether a Pilot was or was not borne during the time the service was performed; and, in the case of ports and harbours, whether the ship was taken into the place, or merely to the offing. In other cases, bearings should be given, in default of which no payment will be ordered to be made on the certificates.

Certificates made out by Masters-Commanding, or other Officers, in their own favour, should be submitted for the approval of the Commander in-chief.

Officers employed in Tenders on the Home Station, are in no case to be paid pilotage for going into or out of the port where the Ship to which such tenders are attached belongs.

14.

Officers in charge of watches are to take care that every requisite notation is made in the deck log book (Sea Service or Harbour Service, as the case may be), before they leave the deck, at the end of their respective watches; and the Captains will frequently inspect the deck log-books to ascertain that they are properly kept, and that the instructions issued with them are duly observed.

15.

As it is highly necessary that the position of Her Majesty's Ships should be correctly known at any moment of the night, the Captain is to direct, with a view to check the reckoning, that observations of the Moon, Planets, or Stars, be made in the course of each night watch (weather permitting), and more frequently when near the land or shoals, in order to determine the latitude; which observations are to be forthwith worked, and the result, with the time of observation, is to be noted in the deck log-book, for entry in the log-book.

16.

The Captain is to take upon himself the responsibility of personally ascertaining that all the Lieutenants, Sub-Lieutenants, Second Masters, and Subordinate Officers of the Military Branch, do, when their Ships are at sea, take the proper observations for ascertaining the latitude and longitude every day; and that, moreover, during their night watches, they carry into effect the directions contained in the preceding Article. But the attention of the Officer of the watch is not to be unduly occupied with these observations, to the possible detriment or neglect of the other important and responsible duties devolving upon him; and he is never to go below for the purpose of working out the result of such observations, unless properly relieved of the charge of the deck by another competent Officer.

17.

Many of Her Majesty's Ships having been lost, and others placed in great danger, by Officers in command endeavouring to make the land, or to get into or to close with ports after dark, such Officers are required, instead of closing with the land or a port after nightfall, to stand off and on, or lay by until daylight shall enable them to approach with certainty and security. This order, however, is not to be considered as applying to such nights when, from the brightness of the moon, and clearness of the weather, there may be sufficient light to ensure perfect security for the Ship, notwithstanding any error in her supposed position, arising from currents or other causes; nor is the order required to be imperatively adhered to in cases of pressing importance which may justify the infraction thereof; but, under the latter circumstances, every possible precaution is to be taken by additional look-out and care, as well as by reduction of sail or steam, and by all other means of preventing accident in case of mistake as to the exact position of the Ship with reference to the land, or port, or adjacent rocks or shoals.

18.

The Captain is to encourage the Lieutenants and Subordinate Officers to make themselves acquainted with the coasts and harbours which they visit, and triplicate copies of coasting charts will be furnished in all chart boxes for their use. They are also to be allowed and encouraged to consult the Sailing Directions supplied by the Admiralty, of which duplicate copies for the special purpose will be provided in the chart-boxes.

19.

The following regulations respecting lights to be carried and used by sea-going vessels to prevent collision, are to be carefully attended to, and the Captain is to see that they are perfectly well understood by the Lieutenants, and all other Officers who may be required to act on them:

I. STEAM VESSELS.

All Sea-going Steam Vessels, when under Steam, shall, between sunset and sunrise, exhibit the following Lights:

A bright White Light at the Foremast Head.
A Green Light on the Starboard side.
A Red Light on the Port side.

The Mast-head light shall be so constructed as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least five miles, and shall show an uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of twenty points of the compass, and it shall be so fixed as to throw the light ten points on each side of the ship - viz., from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on either side.

The Green Light on the Starboard side, and the Red Light on the Port side, shall be so constructed as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles, and show an uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, and they shall be so fixed as to throw the light from right a-head to two points abaft the beam on the Starboard and on the Port sides respectively.

The side Lights are to be fitted with inboard screens, projecting at least three feet forward from the light, so as to prevent the lights from being seen across the bow.

Steam vessels under sail only, are not to carry their mast-head Light,

FOG-SlGNALS.

All Sea-going Steam-Vessels, whether propelled by paddles or screws when their steam is up, and when under way, shall in all cases of Fog use as a Fog Signal a Steam Whistle, placed before the Funnel at not less than eight feet from the deck, which shall be sounded at least once every five minutes; but when the steam is not up, they shall use a Fog Horn or Bell, as ordered for Sailing Ships.

II. SAILING VESSELS.

All Sea-going Sailing Vessels when under way, or being towed, shall, between sunset and sunrise, exhibit a Green Light on the Starboard side, and a Red Light on the Port side of the vessel, and such Lights shall be so constructed as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles, and shall show an uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, from right a-head to two points abaft the beam on the Starboard and on the Port sides respectively.

The Coloured Lights shall be fixed whenever it is practicable so to exhibit them; and shall be fitted with inboard screens projecting at least three feet forward from the Light, so as to prevent the Lights being seen across the bow.

When the Coloured Lights cannot be fixed (as in the case of small vessels in bad weather,) they shall be kept on deck between sunset and sunrise, and on their proper sides of the vessel, ready for instant exhibition, and shall be exhibited in such a manner as can be best seen on the approach of, or to, any other vessel or vessels, in sufficient time to avoid collision, and so that the Green Light shall not be seen on the Port side, nor the Red Light on the Starboard side.

FOG SIGNALS.

All Sea-going Sailing Vessels, when under way, shall, in all cases of Fog, use when on the Starboard Tack a Fog Horn, and when on the Port Tack shall Ring a Bell. These signals shall be sounded once at least every five minutes.

III. PILOT VESSELS.

Sailing Pilot Vessels are to carry only a White Light at the Masthead, and are to exhibit a Flare-up Light every fifteen minutes, in accordance with Trinity House regulation.

IV. VESSELS AT ANCHOR.

All Sea-going Vessels when at anchor in roadsteads or fairways, shall between sunset and sunrise exhibit, where it can best be seen, but at a height not exceeding twenty feet above the hull, a White Light in a Globular Lantern of eight inches in diameter, and so constructed as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light all round the horizon, at a distance of at least one mile.

V.

The following Diagrams are intended to illustrate the use of the Lights carried by Vessels at Sea, and the manner in which they indicate to the vessel which sees them the position and description of the vessel which carries them:-

FIRST. - When both Red and Green Lights are seen:
A sees a Red and Green Light ahead; - A knows that a vessel is approaching her on a course directly opposite to her own, as B

Figure 1

If A sees a White Mast-head Light above the other two, she knows that B is a Steam Vessel.

SECOND. - When the Red, and not the Green Light, is seen:
A sees a Red Light ahead or on the bow; - A knows that either, 1, a vessel is approaching her on her Port Bow, as B;

Figure 2

or, 2, a Vessel is crossing in some direction to Port, as D D D.

Figure 3

If A sees a White Mast-head Light above the Red Light, A knows that the vessel is a Steam Vessel, and is either approaching her in the same direction, as B, or is crossing to port in some direction, as D D D

THIRD. - When the Green, and not the Red Light is seen:
A sees a Green Light ahead or on the bow; - A knows that either, 1, a vessel is approaching her on the Starboard Bow, as B;

Figure 4

or, 2, a vessel is crossing in some direction to starboard, as D D D.

Figure 5

If A sees a White Mast-head Light above the Green Light A knows that the vessel is a Steam Vessel, and is either approaching her in the same direction as B, or is crossing to starboard in some direction, as D D D.

NOTE. - The foregoing Regulations (published in the London Gazette, March 9th, 1858,) are, in pursuance of the power and authority vested in the Admiralty by the 295th Section of the Act 17th and 18th Victoria, Chapter 104, Part IV., made applicable also to British Merchant Vessels.

20.

Whenever any Ship, whether a Steam or Sailing Ship, proceeding in one direction, meets another Ship, whether a Steam or Sailing Ship, proceeding in another direction, so that if both Ships were to continue their respective courses, they would pass so near as to involve any risk of a collision, the helms of both Ships shall be put to port so as to pass on the port side of each other, and this rule shall be obeyed by all Steam Ships and by all Sailing Ships, whether on the port or starboard tack, and whether close-hauled or not, unless the circumstances of the case are such as to render a departure from the rule necessary in order to avoid immediate danger, and subject also to the proviso that due regard shall be had to the dangers of navigation, and, as regards Sailing Ships on the starboard tack close-hauled, to the keeping such Ships under command. (Vide Act 17th and 18th Victoria, Chapter 104, Sections 296 and 297)

21.

Every Steam Ship, when navigating any narrow channel, shall, whenever it is safe and practicable, keep to that side of the fair-way or mid-channel which lies on the starboard side of such Steam Ship. (Vide Act 17th and 18th Victoria, Chapter 104, Sections 296 and 297)

22.

The attention of the Captains and Masters of Her Majesty's Ships is called to the necessity of constantly watching the deviation of the compasses, caused by the attraction of the iron in Ships, especially in Steam Ships, and more particularly in those constructed of iron, experience having shown that large errors are caused thereby, which not only vary in degree when approaching the magnetic equator, but in many instances when passing to the southward of it, requiring the correction for error to be applied in a contrary direction to that previously ascertained. With the view of guarding against the dangers arising from the above cause, the following directions are to be observed:-

i. No iron of any kind is to be placed nor suffered to remain within the distance of seven feet of the Binnacle or Standard Compasses, when it is practicable, according to the size and construction of the vessel, to remove it; and mixed metal, or copper, is to be substituted for iron in the bolts, keys, and dowels, in the scarphs of beams, coamings and head-ledges, and also the hoops of the gaffs and booms, and belaying pins, which come within the distance of seven feet of the Compasses.

ii. The Spindles and Knees of the Steering Wheels which come within the distance of seven feet of the Compasses, are also to be of mixed metal.

iii. Iron Tillers which work forward from the rudder-head are not to range within seven feet of the Compasses, and in vessels which have Iron Tillers working abaft the rudder-head, the Binnacles are to be placed as far forward from the wheel as may be convenient for the helmsman to steer by.

iv. The Boat's Iron Davits are to be placed as far as may be practicable and convenient from the Compasses.

v. All vertical Iron Stanchions, such as those for the support of the Deck, or for the Awnings, &c., and likewise the Armstands, are to be kept beyond the distance of FOURTEEN FEET from the Compasses in use, so far as the size of the vessel will admit.

vi. The Binnacles for the steering Compasses are to be constructed upon a given plan, with tops made to take off, and in order to prevent improper materials from being deposited therein, they are not to be fitted with doors.

vii. As the vicinity of the Compasses when the Binnacles are too close together, has been found materially to affect their accuracy, in all Ships where there are two Binnacles they are to be separated as much as the diameter of the wheel will permit, and so as the helms-man may see the Compass conveniently; but in no case are they to be allowed to be nearer than four feet six inches.

viii. For the better preservation of the Compasses, in every Ship a closet is constructed in a dry place, sufficiently large for the reception of the Ship's establishment of Compasses, and it is to be appropriated to that purpose exclusively, the key being kept by the Master; and in order that the spare Compass cards may never be kept with poles of the same nearest to each other, cases are supplied which will prevent the possibility of their being packed improperly.

ix. All Ships are to be swung before sailing from the port where they fit out, and subsequently once in each year, for the purpose of ascertaining the errors of the Compasses, also immediately on their arrival on a Foreign Station; or if there has been any great change in the Ship's geographical position since the errors were last observed.

x. Azimuth and amplitude observations are also to be taken at sea, for the same purpose, as pointed out in the practical rules supplied to Her Majesty's Ships, for the guidance of Officers.

xi. Whenever Ships are swung, or observations are taken at sea, a notation of the circumstance, and of the amount of error, is to be inserted in the Ship's Log and Remark Books, and a return of the local attraction of the Ship is to be transmitted to the Admiralty every year, on the 31st December.

xii. It is always to be stated in the Returns, if the Compasses have been corrected by Magnets.

At the Home Ports, four days' notice in writing is to be given by the Captain to the Commander-in-chief, of the time when the Ship will be ready to be swung to ascertain the errors of the Compasses.

23.

Whenever it shall be found necessary to move the Standard Compass to or from the shore, or from Ship to Ship, it is always to be done in the presence of the Master, or some other commission Officer, and the same when it is drawn from, or returned to, the Dock-yard; and, in the latter case, a certificate of the condition in which it is returned is to be given by the Officer of the yard directed to have charge of them, and a copy of such certificate is to be forwarded by the Captain to the Admiralty.

24.

Her Majesty's Government having undertaken to promote and take part in an extended system of Meteorological observations at Sea, and having caused the requisite instruments, forms of register, and instructions, to be provided and placed at the principal Seaports of the United Kingdom, for the use of the Mercantile Marine; the Captains of Her Majesty's Ships are to co-operate in this undertaking whenever, and as far as, their respective opportunities and means will admit, taking care that the Officers in charge of watches note the height of the barometer and thermometer, and the temperature of the sea, at the hours specified in the following Article.

Standard Barometers, and tested Thermometers, will be supplied from Her Majesty's Dock-yards in the usual manner, on demand. Printed Registers, with the necessary instructions, will also be supplied, on demand, to any Officer who may feel disposed to record the meteorological observations with greater minuteness than is imperatively required; and such Registers are to be forwarded to the Secretary of the Admiralty, at the end of each year, by the Officer who kept them.

25.

The barometer, sympiezometer, or aneroid supplied, is to be carefully suspended in some secure and accessible part of the Ship, and the height of the mercury therein, and in the attached thermometer, correctly observed and registered in the log every day at the hours of 4, 8, and 12 A.M.. and P.M.

And as there are occasionally conditions of weather, not only in the hurricane regions, but in the most tranquil seas, when a knowledge of the various movements of the barometer may become of great value, on these occasions additional observations are to be made, and recorded, with such particulars of the corresponding changes in the wind, as well as of any remarkable appearances in the weather, as may seem to indicate any connexion between them.

The part of the Ship where the Barometer is suspended, must be stated in the beginning of the log-book.

26.

A few days before leaving harbour, the Master of a Ship newly commissioned is to demand the Chronometers allowed; and is also to make a separate demand for a Barometer, and such instruments (to be specified) as it may be customary from time to time for the Admiralty to furnish to Her Majesty's Ships for nautical purposes.

27.

As soon as the destination of the Ship is known, the Master is to demand such Charts as may be required, according to the station on which the Ship is to be employed.

28.

Sets of Charts, arranged for the different Stations, and packed in boxes, are lodged with the Superintendents of the several home Dockyards, for the purpose of being issued to Her Majesty's Ships on demand; and every Officer, on receiving a box of such Charts, is to attend to the following regulations:-

He is to see that the Charts, Books, &c., contained in the box, correspond with the list thereon, a receipt for which he is to give, noting in it the marks and numbers on the box; and upon the issue of a box of Charts to him, for any particular Station, he is to deliver to the Superintendent any box or boxes of Charts, which he may have received for any other Station, unless particularly directed to be supplied with them in addition.

29.

As, from time to time, new or corrected Charts are supplied, they are at once to be put into their respective places in the Chart box, and the cancelled Chart is to be returned to the Admiral's office, it abroad, or to the Superintendent's office, if at home.

30.

The Masters and Second Masters of Her Majesty's Ships, before proceeding to sea, are to consider it their special duty to make themselves acquainted with, and to bring to the knowledge of their respective Captains, the notices issued from time to time from the Hydrographic Office of the Admiralty, and from the Trinity House, relative to navigation. At the Home Ports these notices will be kept for reference on board the Flag Ships of the Commanders-in-chief.

31.

When a Hydrographic notice of a newly-discovered shoal, or rock, or other danger, or a Notice to Mariners of a new or altered light, buoy, beacon, or land mark, is received on board, the Master, is at once to insert it, in red ink, in all the Charts to which it refers (these being always enumerated at the foot of the notice), and to note the same in the Sailing Directions, reporting to the Captain that he has so done.

32.

On passing a Light, the Master is to compare it with the Admiralty list of Lights, and if it should not agree with the description there given of it, or if the Light be inefficient, he is to make a report thereof, in writing, to the Captain, who will, by the first opportunity, transmit the report to the Commander-in-chief under whom he is serving, for the information of the Admiralty.

33.

When opportunities offer, the Captain is to cause surveys to be taken, and charts to be made, of the harbours and coasts he visits, by the Master or other qualified Officer, to whom every facility for this purpose is to be given, and who are always to affix their signatures to their drawings and remarks. Such surveys are to be noted in the Remark Book.

In executing the foregoing instructions in foreign places, the Captain and all other Officers are to be very careful to avoid giving any ground of offence to the Authorities.

34.

When it may be absolutely necessary to hire a Steam Tug to assist one of Her Majesty's Ships in or out of Harbour, or to tow such Ship from one place to another, and there may not be time to report the same for the previous authority of the Admiralty, a separate agreement, in writing, is to be made in each case, with the permission of the Commander-in-chief, or senior Officer present, and the terms are to be immediately reported to the Secretary of the Admiralty (care being taken that the charges are not higher than the custom and the regulation of the Port may sanction), together with a statement of the circumstances which rendered it necessary to employ such Steam Tug.

35.

When the Ship is at sea, and as often as he may deem it requisite in harbour, the Captain is to leave his orders for the night, in the book supplied for that purpose. And he is frequently to examine the deck log-books, to ascertain that the Officers in their respective watches enter with accuracy, and according to the instructions on that head, all the particulars proper to be recorded.

36.

Whenever a ship shall be ordered to be paid off, or the Captain may be removed, or whenever a Master shall be discharged therefrom, a special report, in duplicate, of the professional qualifications of such Officer is to be made by the Captain to the Admiralty, to be classed under the following heads :

i. As to his general skill in Navigation, ii. As to the zeal or aptitude which has been shown by him in making himself acquainted with the pilotage of foreign coasts and harbours. iii. As to his proficiency in chronometrical, lunar, and other astronomical observations, iv. As to the attention he has given to the various systems of winds, currents, &c. v. As to the particular coasts with which he is best acquainted, vi. As to the Captain's opinion of the general trustworthiness of the Master as a pilot.


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