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William Loney RN - Background
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The Queens Regulations and the Admiralty Instructions - 1861
ACCOUNTS, &c., OF STORES AND PROVISIONS.
When a Ship is commissioned, the Captain will be furnished, from the Dockyard and War Department, with the establishment of stores allowed to a ship of her rate and class, according to which his future demands are to be made. And he is to carry to sea the established number of boats and quantity of every article of stores allowed, unless he shall obtain the sanction of the Admiralty for leaving any number or part of them on shore at the port where the Ship is fitting out.
When a Ship is in want of stores, proper demands are to be made for them in writing, through the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer; and when a Ship is going into port, the Captain is to cause the demands, together with the report of the defects of the Ship, to be made out, that there may be no unnecessary delay in supplying the stores or refitting the Ship; and, if possible, no more than one demand is to be made for each description of stores to complete the sea establishment.
Demands for Gunners', Boatswains', and Carpenters' stores are to be signed by the Master, and the Officer in charge, and those for Engineers' stores by the Engineer in charge. All demands must bear the Captain's signature of approval.
Commanders-in-chief and senior Officers are to exercise a proper check on all demands for stores, whether at home or abroad, but more especially from Ships proceeding to England.
Officers in charge of stores on board Her Majesty's Ships are to keep regular and accurate accounts thereof; and the following are the forms and books required, which will be supplied from the Dockyard:-
Abstract Statement of Receipts and Issues.
Rough Expense and Supply Book.
Indent or First Supply.
Report of Survey of Remains.
Demands for Stores.
Certificate of Conversion.
Guard Book for Vouchers.
The forms and books required for the Gunner's accounts will be supplied from the War Department.
As stores, usually termed Engineers', Gunners', Boatswains', and Carpenters' stores are to be accounted for separately, separate vouchers are to be used for each of the said description of stores.
Before the Ship proceeds to sea, the Captain is to take care that the respective Officers in charge of stores sign the necessary receipts for such supplies as may have been obtained; and that they procure proper receipts for the stores that may have been returned. The indents and supply notes are to be carefully examined, to ascertain that every article inserted therein has been actually received on board; and no boats, oars or other stores supplied for harbour service, are to be taken to sea; observing that the value thereof, in such case will be charged against the Officer's pay.
The expenditure of stores, whether for present use or sea store, is to be inserted daily, with every particular, in the respective columns of the rough Expense Book; and the quantity of each article is to be specified in words at length.
The rough Expense Book kept daily by Officers having charge of the stores, is to be examined once at least in the course of every week by the Captain and Master, who are to affix their initials in proof of such examination, and it is to be copied at the earliest opportunity into the fair Expense Book.
The Captain must bear in mind that the daily entries into the Expense Book are necessary to ensure accuracy in the accounts, as well as their being kept closely made up; he will therefore adopt such measures as may be necessary to enable him to ascertain that all the expenditures are duly recorded at the proper time.
All losses are to be duly inserted in the Expense Book, and the occasion of the loss in each instance is to be fully described in the proper column, "For what use," &c., and the Officer in charge is to ascertain that the particulars of the loss are noted in the Ship's Log Book, and to add in his Expense Book that such notation has been made.
The expenditure of articles lost by neglect will not be allowed, unless the loss is also noted on the Ship's Books and Pay Documents against the person through whose neglect it may have taken place; a notation is also to be made to the same effect in the Expense Book, with the name of the person against whom the loss has been noted. The charge in every case is to be enforced.
Each Officer in charge of stores is to keep a Supply Book, in which he is to insert all articles arising from conversion, as well as those which may be purchased, or supplied from other Ships, or appearing from any source on the debtor side of the Abstract Statement. The several entries in the Supply Book are to be numbered so as to correspond with the distinguishing numbers in the Abstract Statement, under which the several particulars contained therein are brought to account. Whenever stores are taken on charge by conversion, or otherwise as a voluntary charge, the initial letters V.C. are to be inserted, instead of filling up the column headed "From whom;" and the same letters, together with the distinguishing number of the charge, are to be inserted in the Expense Book under the date of the expenditure of stores converted.
All stores converted are to be entered in the Expense Book, so that the Officer in charge of the stores may obtain credit for them; and in each instance of conversion the articles made are to be duly taken on charge; and the Captain's order for the conversion must be produced as a voucher to the accounts.
Whenever split or damaged sails are inserted as an expenditure in the Expense Book, the quantity of canvas taken out of them is to be entered in the books as a voluntary charge, as worn or old canvas; and all conversions of damaged stores are also to be entered in the same manner.
Stores, when received in lieu, are to be taken on charge, and those returned to be discharged (except the rigging, as explained in Art. 11); and if the stores be received in lieu under a different denomination, such stores must be taken on charge as they may have been supplied;-for instance, if canvas, &c., be received in lieu of a sail returned, the sail must be discharged, and the canvas, &c., taken on charge, the expenditure thereof duly inserted at the proper time in the Expense Book, and the sail made therefrom taken on charge by conversion.
The rigging of Her Majesty's Ships not being on charge, otherwise than as appears on the rigging warrant, no part of it is to be entered as a credit in the Abstract Statement when returned; nor are the ropes and blocks received for the purpose of replacing any part of the rigging to be entered as a debit in the Abstract Statement, but a notation of the transaction is to be made in the accounts. When rope, supplied as sea store, is used to replace rigging, it is to be inserted as an expenditure, and the old rope is to be taken on charge in the Supply Book, as rounding or junk, or as unrove rigging; and when rigging, replaced by rope, taken from the sea store, shall be returned into store, the necessary receipt is to be procured as a voucher for its return; but not any supply of rope is to be obtained in lieu, it being proper in such case to demand the requisite quantities for replenishing the sea store, which are to be entered as a debit in the Abstract Statement.
When stores are returned, or lent to other Ships, a Return or Supply Note is to be furnished, and receipts from the persons to whom the stores may be returned or supplied, must be procured; and when articles are supplied to other Ships, or for other services, the order for the supply must accompany the receipt taken for them.
When a Tender is attached to a Ship, the Officer in charge of stores is to consider himself responsible for those supplied to the Tender, which are to be accounted for in the same manner as the stores supplied to the Ship, and the Officer commanding the Tender is to sign the Expense Book, which is to be approved by the Captain's signature, and the losses appearing therein are to be noted in the Ship's Log; such Officer commanding is to keep a rough Expense Book, and rough Abstract Statement, so that he may know at any moment the exact remains of stores on board the Tender. Unless under special instructions to the contrary, a complete set of accounts will be required for each Tender, from the Captain of the Ship to which she is attached.
From the receipt and issue vouchers, and expense books, an abstract statement is to be made up, by which the state of the remains of stores on board may be ascertained, and any deficiencies or surpluses appearing after survey of the remains, are to be inserted in the proper columns. The supplies, receipt, or return of stores are to be posted into the Abstract Statement as they occur, when received, and the expenditure at the end of each month, care being taken to make a correct total of the separate quantities expended during the mouth.
The receipts and credits brought to account in the Abstract Statement being shown by distinguishing numbers, corresponding numbers must be affixed to the vouchers in the Guard Books. The whole of the accounts and vouchers, except those appertaining to Engineer's stores, are to remain in the possession of the Paymaster, who is to allow the respective Officers to have access to them at reasonable times, for the purpose of obtaining such information as they may require.
Explanations of the causes of differences, whether of stores deficient or surplus, appearing when the account is balanced, are to be given in the last page. Stores deficient from omissions in the report of survey of remains are to be taken on charge by entering them in the Supply Book for the succeeding period. Whenever any articles described as "Fixtures" in the Establishment of Carpenters' stores are omitted in the Abstract Statement, a certificate must be produced according to the form required.
Although the stores are placed in charge of particular Officers, the accounts are required from the Captain, who is to insert a notation on the pay-tickets of such Officers to enable them to obtain their pay, should they be superseded, provided their respective accounts are correct.
When Masters or Second Masters have charge of the Warrant Officers' Stores by order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, or in consequence of the death or absence of the Officer who had charge of them, the accounts are to be kept in the same manner, the Captain furnishing the Masters or Second Masters with a certificate that the accounts have been kept correctly, to enable them to obtain payment of the remuneration to be granted for this service.
The Engineers' stores on board Steam Ships are to be in charge of the Chief Engineer, and the accounts are to be made up by him in the same manner as for the other stores. When the Ship is out of Commission, the Engineer Officer in charge is to be accountable to the Officers of the Dock-yard, or to the Captain of the Steam Reserve, as the case may be, for whatever expenditure of stores may take place; so that the accounts, to be rendered by the Captain appointed to commission the Ship, may commence only on the day the pendant shall be hoisted.
The Captain is to consider the making up of the respective accounts as a most important duty; and he is to understand that all responsibility relative to store accounts will remain with him, the Officers in charge of the stores, and with the Master as regards Warrant Officers' Stores. The fair accounts appertaining to Gunners', Boatswains', and Carpenters' stores, are to be kept, and prepared for transmission, by the Paymaster (under the direction of the Captain), as pointed out in the instructions for that Officer.
The Engineer's, Boatswain's, and Carpenter's Abstract Statements, and fair Expense Books, together with the indents or first charges, and reports of survey on remains (or in case the Ship should be paid-off, receipts from the Officers of the Yard for the stores returned), as also all other reports of survey, orders for the appropriation and conversion of stores, supply notes, receipts and fair copies of the Supply Books, are to be transmitted by the Captain to the Admiralty, for the Storekeeper-General of the Navy, at the end of every twelve months, and when paid-off.
The accounts relating to Gunners' stores are also to be transmitted by the Captain, at the end of every twelve months, and when paid-off', to "The Secretary of the War Department ('Store Account Branch'), Pall-Mall, London."
On the transmission of the accounts into office, the Rough Expense Books and Supply Books of Gunners', Boatswains', and Carpenters' stores, are to be retained by the Master, and those relating to Engineers' stores by the Engineer Officer in charge; and should the Master or Engineer be removed from the Ship, the said books are to be handed over to their successors, for future reference, if necessary.
When a Ship is to be paid-off all standing, or to be re-commissioned, the Captain is to apply to the Commander in-chief for a survey to be held on her spars, rigging, sails, machinery, and stores, and in the reports particular mention is to be made of such as are damaged or require to be replaced. One copy of the report of survey, appertaining to each department (Engineer's, Boatswain's, and Carpenter's), when approved by the Commander in-chief, is to be transmitted by him to the Superintendent of the Dockyard, for the guidance of the Dockyard Officers; and a copy of the report of survey appertaining to the Gunner's department, approved as before mentioned, to the Military Storekeeper, who will, respectively, become responsible for the efficient equipment of the Ship, so far as may be rendered necessary by the said reports of survey. Duplicate copies of the reports of survey referred to, are to be forwarded immediately, through the Commander in-chief, to the Secretary of the Admiralty.
With a view to prevent the improper disposal of surplus stores from Her Majesty's Ships about to be paid off, either by supplying or transferring them to other ships, or in any other manner, - on the return of a Ship from her station, and when approaching a port, after the usual period of service in commission, surveys are to be held by the proper Officers on board, of the actual remains of stores of every description (except medical, victualling, and clothing stores), both converted and otherwise, the Captain and surveying Officers taking care that every article of store that can be brought to view, be seen, and duly taken on charge in the reports of survey: - such articles as cannot possibly be brought to view are to be taken from the account, and a notation to that effect is to be made in the reports. Immediately on the receipt of orders for the Ship to be paid-off, either all standing, or into the Reserve, the reports of such surveys, signed by the proper Officers, are to be transmitted by the Captain to the Commander-in-chief at the port, in order to their being forwarded to the Superintendent of the Dock-yard, for the guidance of the Officers, as to the quantities of Engineers', Boatswains', and Carpenters' stores to be received from the Ship, after making due allowance for the expenditure which may have taken place from the date of the surveys to the time of paying-off. The report of survey on Gunners' stores is to be forwarded, through the Commander-in-chief, to the Military Storekeeper.
The Captain shall not suffer any of the Ship's stores to be applied to private uses, nor wasted; and the utmost caution is to be observed in all expenditures. Whenever he shall think it necessary to order any extraordinary expenditure, or conversion of stores, his order shall be given, in writing, expressing the reason for the expenditure or conversion; and every such order is to be transmitted into office with the accounts.
The Captain is never to allow the Ship's sails to be used for coverings of boats, or for awnings, or coal screens; nor to convert canvas or sails, which are allowed by the establishment, into sails which are not allowed; nor to remove nor alter the service or marline of the foot ropes of the sails, as supplied by the Dock-yards; nor to convert them, nor any other description of stores, to any other use than that for which they were supplied, unless it be absolutely necessary, or they have been surveyed and reported unfit for their proper use.
The use of iron ballast in boats being contrary to the rules of the service, the expenditure of it, in case of any loss from its being so used, will not be allowed unless the most satisfactory reasons be assigned.
Whenever an Officer having charge of stores may be removed, from any cause, or shall die, a survey must be held, on the remains of his stores for his successor to take charge; and if there be no deficiencies unaccounted for, the Captain is to insert a notation on his pay ticket to enable him to obtain the residue of his pay, or, in case of death, that it may be paid to his representatives.
Losses and deficiencies arising from a disregard of any part of the instructions relating to the receipt and expenditure of stores, or which may not be satisfactorily accounted for, will be charged against the Captain, as well as the Master and the Officer having the charge of the stores in question.
When stores are received on board one Ship for conveyance to another, or to any of the Naval Yards, care must be taken to obtain and deliver the requisite receipts into office, in order to clear the charge.
Frequent instances having occurred of the embezzlement of stores belonging to Her Majesty's Ships, when fitting out or re-fitting, the respective Captains are to be particularly careful, on all such occasions, to adopt the most effective measures for the safe custody of the stores.
Every Officer is enjoined to report to the Captain of the Ship to which he belongs, or, through his Commanding Officer, to the Commander-in-chief, or the Secretary of the Admiralty, as circumstances may require, any neglect, collusion, or fraud which he may discover in any Contractors, Agents, or other persons concerned in supplying Her Majesty's Fleet with Stores, Clothing, or Provisions; or in executing any works in the Naval Department, either afloat or on shore, whether such Stores or Provisions be under his charge or not, or such works under his inspection, or that of any other Officer.
If any fraud or material neglect shall be discovered in the supplying of any stores, clothing, or provisions, the Captain is to represent it forthwith to the Commander-in-chief, or senior Officer present, or, in the absence of either to the Superintendent, which representation is, if necessary, to be forwarded to the Secretary of the Admiralty.
Every Officer is forbidden to have any pecuniary or personal interest in purchases, or in contracts, made for supplying provisions, clothing, or stores of any kind, for the use of Her Majesty's ships; or in contracts made for executing any works in the Naval Department; or to receive any emolument, fee, or gratuity whatsoever, either directly or indirectly, on account of such purchases or contracts.
The Captain of any Ship serving abroad, and not under the orders of a superior Officer, is to send to the Secretary of the Admiralty timely demands for such stores as the Ship he commands may require, if there be not proper Officers on the station to comply with them; and to enable the Board to judge more correctly of the necessity for such supplies, a survey of the quantity and quality of the Stores remaining on board is always to be held, and a report of the same is to be transmitted with every demand: and Captains are charged not to purchase stores of any description unless there be an absolute and urgent want of them.
The Captain is to attend, most carefully, to the state and preservation of the iron cables; and, to guard against accidents from the cables becoming weakened from wear or corrosion, he is to cause a survey to be held upon them every half-year, by the proper Officers, as directed in. Article 3, at page 286, assisted by an experienced Blacksmith from the Dockyard, if the ship be in port, and, if not, by a Blacksmith of the ship or of the squadron where one can be had.
The bolts and pins of the joining shackles, and the chain messengers, are to be examined at the same time, care being taken that the swivels in the former are well cleaned, and warm tallow run into the sockets. All the shackles and bolts are to be rubbed over with soft tallow, and the pins with stiff white lead, in order to prevent corrosion, and to .cause the cables to part more quickly when required. Whenever the shackle-bolts are driven out, the greatest care is to be taken to remove from the sockets, with the chisel supplied for that purpose, every particle of the old lead pellets before driving new ones.
One copy of the report of survey is to be pasted into the Guard Book of returns, to accompany the Boatswain's annual account, and the other copy is to be forwarded with the periodical returns; but if the cables are found defective, a triplicate copy of the report must be transmitted, by the earliest opportunity, through the senior Officer present, to the Secretary of the Admiralty, and full particulars of the defects communicated by letter to the Commander-in-chief of the station where the Ship is employed.
The Captain is not, either at home or abroad, without special permission from his Commander-in-chief, to deposit in the Dock-yard or elsewhere, any of the sails, spare machinery, or stores of any kind whatsoever belonging to the establishment of the Ship. Whenever he may, under peculiar circumstances (which are always to be stated in the Commander-in-chiefs written permission, have authority to deposit any articles in a foreign yard, &c., he is never to omit to take them on board again before he quits the station, unless the Commander-in-chief, or senior Officer on the spot, shall direct them to be left for the use of other Ships.
The hempen cables, supplied to Her Majesty's Ships are not to be stowed away until they are thoroughly dry; and when they are stowed every precaution is to be taken to protect them from water. Such cables, sails not in use, and other perishable stores, are to be got on deck occasionally in fine weather, to be inspected and aired, the dates of the inspections, and the state in which the different stores were found, being duly recorded in the log-book, as well as on the last page of the expense book of the Officer in charge, where the entries under each date are to be signed by the Captain and Master.
The Captain is to send a return, half yearly, according to the established form, containing reports of the several articles on trial in the Ship he-commands. The names and uses of the several articles are to be described, the names of the inventors when known, the points in which the articles differ from others in use before, and every particular is to be inserted, affording every possible information on their advantages or defects; and any change which may, from time to time, occur in the opinion of the respective Officers is to be noted in each successive report. Articles under trial are to be put to early and frequent proof.
These regular reports are to be in addition to any special reports ordered to be made on such articles.
Whenever any of Her Majesty's Ships shall have on board any implement or arrangement in the armament of a Ship differing from the establishment, the Captain is to transmit to the Secretary of State for War, in addition to the half-yearly report for the Admiralty, a similar report for the War Department, according to the established form.
The Captain is not to spare any of the Ship's stores or provisions to the Ship's of War of any Foreign Power, without evident necessity, or orders from his superior Officer; and, in either case, he is to give his orders in writing for such supply, and to send to the Secretary of the Admiralty, by the first .conveyance, an account of all the articles supplied, causing proper notations to be inserted in the Ship's log-book, and in the Officer's accounts; he is also to require from the Commander of the Foreign Ship of War three receipts for the stores or provisions supplied, one of which he is to transmit, with the account, to the Admiralty, and a second by another opportunity, through his Commander-in-chief; and the third is to accompany the Officer's account.
The Captain is not to spare any Ship's stores or provisions for the use of any Merchant Ship or Vessel, unless it shall evidently appear that such Ship or Vessel is in distress for the want of the same, and that they cannot be otherwise procured, or unless he shall receive orders from his superior Officer to do so; in either case, he is to cause proper receipts to be taken for the Articles supplied, with the address of the owners, and which receipts are to be sent forthwith to the Admiralty (the original direct, and the duplicate through his Commander-in-chief), in order that payment may be claimed from the owners. In. the case of provisions, he is to cause cash payments to be obtained, if possible, for the same. If found impracticable, he is then to obtain a bill of exchange, to be-drawn by the Master on the owners, payable to Her Majesty's Paymaster-General or to his order, and sending such bill to the Secretary of the Admiralty. The address of the Owners is to be stated; and the value of the articles of provisions is to be calculated at the rates stated in the Paymaster's Instructions.
The Standard, Azimuth, and Binnacle Compasses, - Chronometers, Charts, Barometers, &c., are to be in charge of the Master. The spare Compasses are also to be in charge of the Master; and he is enjoined never to allow any of the Compasses to be moved without previously lifting (by the means provided) the card from the pivot. The Captain, Master, and other Officers are to be guided, with reference to the Compasses, by the "Practical Rules" relating thereto, with which rules they are to make themselves thoroughly acquainted.
The Captain is to place the Seamen's Library under the temporary charge of the Seamen's Schoolmaster, or such other fit person as he may think best.
The Books are to be lent to the Seamen, under such regulations as the Captain may find it advisable to adopt, for the purpose of rendering them as accessible and useful as possible, and for ensuring their being properly taken care of.
Bibles and Prayer Books will continue to be issued for the use of Her Majesty's Ships, under the regulations which may from time to time be made on that head.
The attention of the Captain is to be given to prevent injury to, or loss of, the Bibles and Prayer Books, and Books supplied for the Seamen's Library; and should any of them be missing, or appear to have been injured beyond reasonable use, he may, if he see due cause, order the value to be charged against the persons or person through whose misconduct or negligence the loss or injury may have occurred.
All demands for provisions, clothing, and other stores, in charge of the Paymaster, are to be prepared under the authority of the Captain; and to enable the Paymaster at all times to demand and provide the requisite supplies, the Captain is to inform that Officer of the period for which the Ship is to be victualled, and, if necessary, the station to which she is about to proceed.
Whenever the Ship is in Port, whether at home or abroad, the Crew are to be supplied, if possible, with Fresh Meat and Vegetables, according to the established proportions. In all cases where Fresh Meat is received on board the Captain is to take care to appoint proper Officers to ascertain that it be perfectly good and wholesome, and, if received from a contractor, in every way conformable with the terms of his contract. In order that a just distribution thereof may be made, and to prevent any occasion of complaint, the fresh meat, if Beef, is to be received in quarters, and, if Mutton, in carcases, conformably to which weight the quarters or carcases are to be cut up into the usual mess pieces, in some convenient and public part of the Ship, open to the view of the Ship's company, and under the particular inspection and supervisal of such Officers, Petty Officers, and Non-commissioned Officers of Marines, as the Captain may appoint.
The Captain is to cause the Ship's Cook to be overlooked, in order that the salt meat be properly steeped; that all articles of provision be cleanly and palatably dressed; that the boilers be kept clean; and that the skimmings of the boilers, in which salt meat has been boiled, be on no account given to the men, either to mix with their puddings, or to use in any other manner, as scarcely anything is more unwholesome or more likely to produce scurvy. When the meat is boiled (whether salt or fresh), it is to be delivered out to the messes in the customary manner of pricking fairly for it.
In the event of a complaint being made by any of the Officers or Ship's company, that the Salt Meat supplied to them has, from its age or from any inferiority of quality, lost in boiling more than one half of its original weight, the Captain will order inquiry to be made by the surveying Officers of the Ship into the circumstances, and whether the meat has been properly cut up and cooked; and if it shall be proved to their satisfaction that the daily allowance to the Officers or Ship's Company, or the portion supplied to any particular mess, has fairly lost by boiling more than one-half of the original weight of the meat when put into the coppers, the Captain will, should he consider an extra allowance necessary, direct the Paymaster to issue an additional quantity of raw meat, of the same species, equal to half the original allowance complained of, placing his initials in the proper column of the statement to accompany the Paymaster's accounts, as an authority for the total extra issue on each day.
As these extra issues are authorized only for the purpose of making up the dinner allowance, and as they are to be made only when the Captain may consider them actually requisite for the proper subsistence of the Officers or Men, no portion, either of such extra issues, or of the original ration of salt meat in respect of which they may be made, is ever to be paid for as savings.
In case of the surveying Officers having any difficulty in deciding on the claims for such extra issue, a fair selection of pieces of the meat are to be weighed before being put into the coppers, and also after being cooked.
The allowance of spirit for the Ship's company is to be mixed every day upon deck, with the usual proportion of water, in the presence of a Second Master, or, in his absence, such other Officer as the Captain may appoint, and it is to be served out at dinner-time only.
No raw spirit is to be issued, except for the Commission Officers, Gun Room, Engineers, and Warrant Officers' messes; and all sale, loan, transfer, gift, or barter of spirit, or other intoxicating drink, to or with any of the Ship's company, by any person whatsoever, is prohibited.
When it shall be advisable and practicable to cut fire-wood for the use of the Ship on a foreign station, the Captain will give directions for the necessary quantities of that article being so obtained, by the crew, as opportunities may offer; and as compensation for the labour, exposure, and wear and tear of clothing of the men thus employed, he will direct the Paymaster to pay the same at the rates specified in that Officer's instructions.
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