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The Queens Regulations and the Admiralty Instructions - 1861


CHAPTER VIII.

EXAMINATION OF OFFICERS.

I. General.
II. Military Branch.
III. Civil Branch

§ I. -GENERAL.

1.

The very important duty of examining Officers touching their qualifications for the Service, or for higher and more responsible situations therein, is to be conducted with invariable strictness and impartiality and in accordance with the following instructions. The qualifications required are stated against each grade, or will be found in the form of Certificates of examination in the Appendix; but in no case is the examination of a Candidate to be commenced until the examining Officers shall have satisfied themselves that he is in all respects eligible by age, service, &c., according to the Regulations in force on those points, nor unless he shall produce Certificates of sobriety and good conduct for the full period of service necessary to qualify him for examination, - duly signed by the respective Captains under whose command he has been, - especially from the Captain of the Ship in which he may be at the time serving, or, if not then serving, from the Captain of the ship to which he last belonged.

All passing Certificates are to be made out in duplicate; one copy to be transmitted to the Commander-in-chief, for the Secretary of the Admiralty, and the other to be delivered to the Officer examined.

2.

Officers whose period of service is not clearly stated on their Certificates may, through their respective Captains, apply to the Secretary of the Admiralty (for the Accountant-General of the Navy) to have their time taken out from the Admiralty records; and such applications are to be made in the Form given in the Appendix, the applicants in every case inserting the names of the Ships in which they have served, and the date of entry in and discharge from each, as correctly as possible.

§ II. - MILITARY BRANCH.

1.

FOR NAVAL CADET. - Every Candidate, on obtaining a nomination, will be required to pass an examination at the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth, within three months of nomination. (These Examinations will take place on the first Wednesdays in the months of March, June, September, and December.) In special cases of nominations granted to the sons of natives of Her Majesty's Colonies, a Candidate will be allowed to pass a preliminary examination on board the Flag or Senior Officer's Ship on the Station; but such examination must be passed in strict accordance with these Regulations, and should the Candidate be found qualified, it will still be necessary that he should be sent to England, to be entered on board a Training Ship, where he will be subject to the same Regulations as other Cadets.

2.

Candidates will be required-

i.To produce a Certificate of Birth, or Declaration thereof made before a Magistrate.
ii.To be in good health, and fit for the Service, that is, free from impediment of speech, defect of vision, rupture, or other physical inefficiency.
iii.To write English correctly from dictation, and in a legible hand.
iv.To read, translate, and parse an easy passage from Latin, or from some Foreign Living Language.
N.B. - The aid of a Dictionary will be allowed for these Translations.
And to have a satisfactory knowledge of-
v.The leading facts of Scripture and English History.
vi.Modern Geography, in so far as relates to a knowledge of the principal Countries, Capitals, Mountains, and Rivers. To be able to point out the position of a place on a map when its Latitude and Longitude are given.
vii.Arithmetic, including Proportion, and a fair knowledge of Vulgar and Decimal Fractious.
viii.A knowledge of the Definitions and Axioms of the First Book of Euclid.

As Drawing will prove a most useful qualification for Naval Officers, it is recommended that Candidates for the Service should be instructed therein.

3.

If the Candidate be found unqualified at his first Examination, he will be allowed a second trial at the next Quarterly Examination. Should he not pass this second Examination, he will be finally rejected.

4.

If the Candidate succeeds in passing the required Examination, he will be at once appointed to a Training Ship for the purpose of instruction in the following subjects; namely,-

i.In Algebra, Simple Equations.
ii.The Elements of Geometry.
iii.Plane Trigonometry, and the solution of practical and useful problems.
iv.Spherical Trigonometry, the mode of solving Triangles, and its application to simple Astronomical problems.
v.In Navigation - A Day's Work and Meridional Altitudes; Longitude by Chronometer; Construction and use of Charts.
vi.Nautical Instruments - To explain and use the Sextant, Azimuth Compass, Artificial Horizon, and Theodolite.
vii.The use of the Globes, with correct definitions of Latitude, Longitude, Azimuth, Amplitude, aud other circles of the Sphere.
viii.French and Drawing.
ix.Rigging and Seamanship.

(List of Instruments and Books which each Candidate will be required to have on Entry, - I. Sextant. II. Case of Mathematical Instruments, containing a good Protractor. III. Spy Glass. IV. French Grammar, and a Dictionary containing Sea Terms. V. A Book on Navigation. VI. Euclid's Elements. VII. Book of Geography (Sullivan's 2s. Ed.). VIII. Book on use of Mathematical and Nautical Instruments. IX. A Book on the Steam Engine. X. Colenso's Arithmetic and Algebra. XI. Jean's Trigonometry. XII. Boyd'a Naval Cadet's Manual.)

5.

Quarterly Examinations will be held on board the Training Ship, when any Cadet may be examined in the subjects specified in the preceding Article, and in those branches of knowledge, except Latin, mentioned in Article 2.

6.

If a Cadet be found, at the Quarterly Examinations, not to have made sufficient progress, or if, by indifferent conduct or idle habits on board the Training Ship, he shall show his unfitness for the Service, it will be the duty of the Captain to make a special report thereof to the Admiralty, in order that the Cadet may be at once removed from the Navy.

7.

When a Cadet shall have completed twelve months' instruction, exclusive of vacations, in the Training Ship, he will be examined, and should he obtain a Certificate of Proficiency, he will be discharged into a Sea-going Ship. In case a Cadet should be unavoidably prevented by illness from acquiring the knowledge necessary to enable him to pass at the end of twelve months, his examination, may, with the sanction of the Admiralty, be deferred for three months.

Certificates must be produced, approved by the Captain, from the Master of the Ship, that the Candidate has gone through, aud is competent in, the course of instruction in Rigging and Seamanship; and from the Naval Instructor, as to the Candidate's attention to the various branches of his education, as well as to his general conduct whilst on board the Training Ship.

8.

On leaving the Training Ship:-

i.A Cadet who shall obtain a First-Class Certificate will be entitled to count twelve months' sea-time, and will be rated Midshipman.
ii.A Cadet who shall obtain a Second-Class Certificate will be entitled to count six months' sea-time, and will be rated Midshipman after a service of six months in a sea going ship, provided he shall pass the required examination.
iii.A Cadet who shall obtain a Third-Class Certificate, will not be entitled to count any sea time, and will be rated Midshipman after a service of twelve months in a sea-going ship, provided he shall pass the required examination.
iv.A Cadet who does not obtain a Certificate will be discharged as unfit for the Service.

9.

A Cadet who shall obtain either a Second or Third-Class Certificate from the Training Ship, will be required to pass the following examination before being eligible for the rating of Midshipman by which it must be shown,-

i.That he has kept up a knowledge of his former instruction.
ii.That he is able to work a day's work by Tables as well as by Projection; to find the Latitude by Observation of the Meridian Altitude of the Sun, Moon, and Stars; Longitude by Chronometer; and to work an Amplitude.
iii.That he understands and can explain the use of the Sextant and Azimuth Compass, and the mode of Observing with them. At each examination the Candidate will be required to show that his sextant and other instruments are in good order.
iv.He must produce Log Books, kept by himself, from the time of his entry into a sea-going ship, and Certificates of good conduct.
v.He will also be required to have a fair knowledge of Steering and Managing a Boat under Oars and Sail; of Knotting and Splicing, Rigging Lower Masts and Yards, &c., the use of the Hand and Deep-Sea Lead; and also the simple exercise of the Great Guns.

If found qualified, the Candidate is to receive from the Examining Officers a Certificate in the Form given in the Appendix, and is forthwith to be rated Midshipman.

10.

A Midshipman when he shall have served two years and a-half in that rank, will be required to pass the following Examination:-

i.In Practical Navigation, showing that he understands the principle of Navigating a Ship from one distant port to another, by Dead Reckoning and by his own observations; and that he can explain the principles of the same; and that he can also take and work a double Altitude and Azimuth.
ii.A sufficient knowledge of a Chart to enable him to place thereon the position of the Ship by Observation as well as by Cross Bearings; and to lay off the True and Compass Courses.
iii.Such knowledge of Nautical Surveying, as may enable him to measure a base line and determine positions by angles, and the manner of ascertaining heights and distances.
iv.If he has served in a steam vessel, an acquaintance with the different parts and working of the Steam Engine.
v.A proficiency in French to be attained if he has had an opportunity.
vi.He must be a good practical observer, and his Sextant must be produced in good order.
vii.He must produce Log Books kept by himself from the time of his entry into a sea-going ship and Certificates of Good Conduct.
viii.He is likewise to be examined as to his progress in the knowledge of rigging of Masts, Bowsprits, &c, in getting tops over and placing a lower cap, in setting up rigging, and especially as to the precautions required in staying lower Masts; in hoisting a quarter or stern boat up in a strong breeze with a Sea on; in making up a course and topsail for bending at Sea; in shifting topmasts, yards, and sails at Sea, and the effect of the sails on the Ship both in tacking and wearing; in the detail arrangements for mooring and unmooring Ships and getting under way, and the use of the Hand and Deep Sea Leads. He must likewise know the Great Gun and Small Arm Exercises, the use of Tangent Sights, the charges for the Guns of the Ship, and be able to exercise the Men at his Quarters. A report of the progress he had made in each of the above subjects is to be given in the Half-Yearly Return.

This examination is to be conducted by the Officer in command, not below the rank of Commander (if the Officer in command be below the rank of Commander (and there be no Senior Officer present) the Candidate may be provisionally examined by him; but he must be brought forward for re-examination on the first occasion of proper Officers being fallen in with), and the next Senior Officer in the Ship; and the examinations in Navigation, in the presence of a Captain or Commander, by two Naval Instructors when it may be practicable, or by a Naval Instructor and a Master, or where there is no Naval Instructor by two Masters; that in Gunnery by a Gunnery or other competent Officer. The Candidate is to be required to take and work out his own observations for Latitude, Longitude, Variation, &c., as the case may be. First or Second-Class certificates, in the Form in the Appendix, are to be given, according to the merit of the Candidate, or he is to be rejected if found incompetent; and the period that may elapse from the date of his being so rejected, to the date of his passing this intermediate examination, shall not be allowed to him as Sea Time.

11.

All Midshipmen, until they shall have passed their examinations for Lieutenant, are to keep a book in which the Ship's reckoning is to be worked out and noted, and when they are at sea this book is to be sent in every day to the Captain. It is also to be produced at their Examinations; and during the last six months of their service as Midshipmen it must contain the working of the following Observations; namely :-

  No. of Obs.
i.To find the index correction
 By Sea Horizon10
 By measuring the Sun's diameter off and on the Arc
ii.To find Latitude
 By altitude of Sun or Stars, near the Meridian5
 By Meridian altitude of Sun10
 By Meridian altitude of Moon or Stars10
 By altitude of Pole Star10
iii.To find Longitude by Chronometer
 By altitude of Sun10
 By altitude of Moon or Stars10
iv.To find variation of Compass
 By altitude of Sun and Compass bearing5
 By time at ship noted and Compass bearing3
 By Amplitude5
v.To find Latitude
 By double altitude of Sun or Stars3
vi.To find Longitude
 By Lunar6
vii.To find error and rate of Chronometer by altitudes on shore with artificial Horizon
 By single altitude*5
 By equal altitudes*2

* In case the Candidate should not have had an opportunity of taking the required Observations by artificial Horizon, while belonging to a Ship, he may be allowed to take them at the College.

No Candidate can be examined at the Royal Naval College for the rank of Lieutenant or Master who has not, during the last six months of his service, taken and worked out the number of observations specified in this Article; and in proof of his having done so, he must produce a Certificate, in the Form given in the Appendix, signed by the Naval Instructor, or, where no Naval Instructor is borne, by the Master, and approved by the Captain. If the Candidate shall change his Ship at any time during the last six months of his service prior to going up for examination, he must obtain the Certificate before-mentioned, from the Ship he leaves, of the number and description of observations taken and worked out by him for the broken period.

12.

FOR LIEUTENANT. - A Midshipman, having completed his term of service, and being 19 years of age,- provided he is in all respects qualified according to the foregoing Regulations and Instructions, and provided also that he produces Log Books kept by himself from the date of his entry into a sea-going Ship, - may present himself to pass his examination for the rank of Lieutenant.

The examination, for the rank of Lieutenant, is to be conducted, by order of the Senior Officer present, by three Captains or Commanders, assisted by a Gunnery Officer and a Naval Instructor, or, when there is no Naval Instructor, by a Master, and, if the Candidate passes successfully, he is to receive a certificate to that effect, and from the Commander-in-chief or Senior Officer present an acting order as Sub-Lieutenant, dated on the day of his examination; but a Midshipman who is serving in a Ship so far separated from other Ships that the requisite number of proper examining Officers cannot be obtained, may be provisionally examined by the Officer commanding his own Ship, with the aid of other competent Officers, - Commander, Lieutenant, Master or Second Master, Naval Instructor, and a Gunnery Officer, or such of them as may be present, - and if they find him to be duly qualified, they are to give him a Certificate to that effect, and the Officer in command is forthwith to grant him an acting order as Sub-Lieutenant. In the latter case, the Candidate must be re-examined on the first opportunity that shall afterwards offer, by three Captains or Commanders, a Gunnery Officer, &c., and if he passes successfully he will receive a further Certificate from the examining Officers, and, from the Commander-in-chief or Senior Officer, an acting order as Sub Lieutenant, to take rank from the date of his provisional Certificate, which acting order will be confirmed by the Admiralty on his passing the final examinations at Portsmouth within the prescribed period. In the event of an Officer being rejected at a second examination in Seamanship, he is to revert to the rating of Midshipman from the day on which he was so rejected.

13.

In cases where an Officer's absence from his Ship may not be likely to occasion any particular inconvenience, he may be allowed to proceed to Portsmouth one month before the examination day at the College, to enable him to pass in Gunnery previous to his undergoing the examinations at the College; but no Officer is to be permitted to remain behind from his Ship, for the purpose of passing, if such Ship be about to sail for a Foreign Station. (The provisions of this Article are applicable also to Officers requiring to pass at the College for Master or Second Master.)

14.

All Midshipmen and Acting Sub-Lieutenants, whatever rank they may have attained under the provisions of Article 3, at page 38, will be required to undergo their final examinations, in Gunnery, Navigation, &c., at Portsmouth, in the following order:-

I. In Gunnery - On board the "Excellent". Examination Days - On the fourth Monday in each mouth, at 9 A.M.

II. In Navigation, the Steam Engine, &c. -At the Royal Naval College. Examination Days - On the second Wednesday in each month, at 9 A.M.

15.

Officers, being or arriving in England, who have passed in Seamanship for the rank of Lieutenant, (but not in Gunnery and Navigation,) must, with the approval of the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer at the port at which they may have arrived, or been paid off, or where they may have passed in Seamanship, present themselves for examination in Gunnery on board H.M.S. "Excellent," at Portsmouth, on the first examination day after their arrival in England, or passing in Seamanship at home, or paying off, as the case may be. And all such Officers must present themselves for examination in Navigation, &c, at the Royal Naval College, at the latest, on the third examination day at that establishment after their arrival in England, or passing in Seamanship at home, or paying off, as the case may be; and they must have passed in Gunnery prior to their being examined at the College.

16.

The non-appearance of an Officer for the College examination at the times required by these regulations will be considered as an acknowledgment of his not being qualified, and he will, (unless under certified ill health or other very special circumstance, to be reported at the time,) be dealt with in the same manner as if he had been actually rejected on each day on which he might have appeared.

17.

Any Officer rejected on his first examination at the College, will incur the forfeiture of three months seniority in his rank as Sub-Lieutenant, or as Second Master, or any higher rank which he may have attained. He may present himself, on the next examination day, but a second rejection will incur the forfeiture of three months more seniority as Sub-Lieutenant, or Second Master, as the case may be; and any higher appointment he may hold, the confirmation of which may be depending on his passing, will, on the second rejection, become forfeited; a Sub-Lieutenant may again present himself on the next examination day, - and a 2nd Master at the expiration of three months from his last examination day, - but a third rejection will cause their names to be removed from the list of the Navy.

18.

The Captain of the Ship from whence Officers are sent for examination is to see that they take with them satisfactory proof (Certificate of Birth, or Declaration thereof made before a Magistrate) of their being of the age required by the Queen's Regulations, certificates of service and of good conduct to the day of being so sent, certificates of previous examinations, log books, work books, and all other documents that may, from time to time, be required for the information and inspection of the examining Officers, (The provisions of this Article are applicable also to Officers requiring to pass for Master or Second Muster. All certificates of service, &c., in the Mercantile Marine must be attested by the Board of Trade)

19.

Whenever Officers are sent to Portsmouth for examination, the Captain of the Ship to which they belong is to transmit, for the Commander-in-chief at that Port, a return of such Officers, in the Form given in the Appendix, which return will be forwarded to the Captain of the "Excellent." A similar return is to be transmitted from all Ships on the day of paying off, of Oflicers who have passed in seamanship.*

20.

Officers who may proceed to Portsmouth to pass their final examinations for the rank of Lieutenant, will be borne on the books of H.M.S. "Excellent," as supernumeraries for victuals only, and will be checked to the Royal Naval College with an allowance of 1s. 6d. a day in lieu of provisions. Officers on full pay will be checked of their provisions on board their respective ships while at the College, and those not belonging to a ship will receive the benefit of the allowance. They are to conform to such rules as the Captain of H.M.S. "Excellent" may, from to time, establish for the maintenance of proper order and discipline amongst supernumerary Officers so circumstanced, and for ensuring the utmost attention and application to their professional acquirements and studies.

As many officers as can be accommodated with cabins, will be required to reside entirely in the College. Officers who cannot be so accommodated, will be received on board the "Excellent" until cabins are vacant for them in the College, therefore they are not to be allowed to sleep or mess in the town.

Officers will be expected to be within the walls of the College by half past nine o'clock in the evening. In. the event of any infringement of this rule occurring, a report will be made of it in the morning to the Captain Superintendent, who will take such steps as he may think right to prevent a recurrence of the irregularity.

The Library will at all times be open to officers subject to the rules now in force, but no Books are to be taken out of it.

The Study for the permanent officers is reserved for their exclusive use until 4 P.M. After that hour it may be used by other Officers studying in the College until lights are put out in the evening. The Library, however, may at all times be used for the purposes of study.

21.

In the event of an Officer being rejected in seamanship for a certain period, he will be appointed to a sea-going Ship, in order that he may pass his time as much as possible at sea, and he will at once be discharged to the Flag-Ship to wait a passage. (The provisions of this Article are applicable also to Officers requiring to pass for Master or Second Master.)

22.

FOR MASTER'S ASSISTANT. - Every Candidate, on obtaining a nomination, will be required to pass at one of the general examination days at the Royal Naval College, within three months of nomination.

23.

Candidates will be required to produce a Certificate of Birth, or a declaration thereof made before a Magistrate; they must be in good health, and fit for the Service, that is, free from impediment of speech, defect of vision, or other physical inefficiency.

24.

Candidates between 14 and 15 years of age will be required:-

i.To write English correctly from dictation, and in a legible hand.
And to have a satisfactory knowledge of-
ii.The leading facts of Scripture History.
iii.Modern Geography, in so far as relates to a knowledge of the principal Countries, Capitals, Mountains, and Rivers. To be able to point out the position of a place on a Map when its Latitude and Longitude are given.
iv.Arithmetic, including Proportion, and a fair knowledge of Vulgar and Decimal Fractions.
v.Algebra, including Fractions.
vi.The First Book of Euclid to Proposition XXXII inclusive.

25.

Candidates between 15 and 16 years of age, in addition to the examinations required for those between the ages of 14 and 15, must have a knowledge of-

i.The use of the Globes, with correct definitions of Latitude, Longitude, Amplitude, and the other circles of the Sphere.
ii.Vulgar and Decimal Fractions.
iii.Algebra, including Simple Equations.
iv.The First Book of Euclid.
v.A practical knowledge of the elements of Plane Trigonometry, and its application to the numerical solution of easy and useful problems.

As drawing will prove a most useful qualification for Naval Officers, it is recommended that Candidates for the Service should be instructed therein.

26.

If entered between 16 and 18 years of age, the Candidate must produce proof of having served one year at sea; and, in addition to the qualifications necessary for Master's Assistants entered between 15 and 16 years of age, he will be required to understand the practical use of the Sextant, and the mode of keeping a Ship's reckoning by working a day's work, and of obtaining the latitude by observation.

27.

If entered between 18 and 20 years of age, the Candidate must produce proof of having served two years at sea; and, in addition to the qualifications required by Article 26, he must know the mode of obtaining the longitude by chronometers, and of ascertaining the variation of the compass; and such Candidates will be examined at the College after they have obtained a certificate from the Captain and Master of the Training Ship at Portsmouth that they can explain the mode of rigging the lower masts and bowsprit, and the more simple evolutions of working a Ship under plain sail.

28.

When a Master's Assistant entered between 14 and 16 years of age, has completed three years' service in that rating, he must undergo the examination laid down for Midshipmen, in Article 10, - with the exception of French. The Candidate's knowledge of Gunnery, however, need not extend beyond the simple exercise of the Great Guns; but he must show a fair amount of proficiency in the Small Arms and Cutlass exercises, and of his acquaintance with the stowage of Ships' Holds, as well as the mode of laying out and weighing anchors by boats.

This intermediate examination, in the case of Masters' Assistants who have entered as such with one year or more of sea time, is to be so regulated that the Candidate may have at least one year longer to serve as a Master's Assistant in the Royal Navy before being eligible for examination as Master or Second Master.

At these examinations, first or second-class Certificates, in the Form in the Appendix, are to be given according to the merit of the Candidate, or he is to be rejected if found incompetent; and the period that may elapse from the date of his being so rejected, to the date of his passing the intermediate examination, shall not be allowed to him as sea time.

29.

FOR MASTER or SECOND MASTER. - A Master's Assistant, from the date of his passing the examination referred to in Article 28, must (in case he should not have been allowed one year or more of sea time in some other capacity, either in the Royal Navy or Merchant Service), continue to serve in that rank for a further period of two years; and, having completed such two years' service, he may - provided he is in all respects qualified - according to the foregoing Regulations and Instructions, and provided also that he produces Log Books kept by himself from the date of his entry into a sea-going Ship, present himself for examination for the rank of Master or Second Master.

If the Candidate shall have entered with one year or more of sea time his examination for the rank of Master or Second-Master, may be proceeded with after he shall have served one year from the date of the intermediate examination referred to in Article 28, provided he be in all other respects qualified.

The examination, for the rank of Master or Second Master, is to be conducted, by order of the Senior Officer present, by a Captain or Commander, assisted by three Masters, and, if the Candidate passes successfully, he is to receive a certificate to that effect, and from the Commander-in-chief or Senior Officer present an acting order as Second Master, dated on the day of his examination; but a Master's Assistant, who is serving in a Ship so far separated from other ships that the requisite number of proper examining officers cannot be obtained, may be provisionally examined by the Officer commanding his own Ship, with the aid of other competent Officers, - Commander, Lieutenant, Master, or Second Master, and Naval Instructor, if such be present, - and if they find him to be duly qualified, they are to give him a Certificate to that effect, and the Officer in command is forthwith to grant him an acting order as Second Master. In the latter case, the Candidate must be examined on the first opportunity that shall afterwards offer by a Captain or Commander, assisted by three Masters, and if he passes successfully he will receive a further Certificate from the examining Officers, and, from the Commander-in-chief or Senior Officer, an acting order as Second Master, to take rank from his first provisional certificate, which acting order will be confirmed by the Admiralty on passing his final examinations in Navigation and Pilotage within the prescribed period. In the event of an Officer being rejected at a second examination in Seamanship, he is to revert to the rating of Master's Assistant from the day on which he was so rejected.

30.

Acting Masters, Acting Second Masters, and Masters' Assistants, proceeding to Portsmouth for the purpose of being examined, will, on producing their final passing certificate in Seamanship, be received on board the Flag-ship as supernumeraries for victuals only, for the purpose of studying under the Naval Instructor of that Ship.

The Officers thus received in the Flag-ship will be permitted to remain until the second examination day at the College after they shall have joined the Flag-ship (provided they shall have lost no time in joining, after their arrival in England or being paid-off); after which, if they shall have failed to present themselves for examination, or have been rejected, they will be discharged to the ship to which they may belong, or to the shore.

An Officer who shall have been thus discharged, after failing to pass on the second examination day, will not be allowed to present himself again, for his final trial, until after the expiration of three months from the date of such examination day, and should he then pass, his seniority will date nine months subsequently to the day when he passed in Seamanship, provided he shall afterwards pass, within the regulated period, at the Trinity House.

The date of each Officer's reception in the Flag-ship is to be noted on the certificate of his having passed at the College, as well as the date of his arrival in England, or of his being paid-off.

31.

Officers having passed in Seamanship and in Navigation for the rank of Master or Second Master will not be confirmed in either of those ranks, unless, within one month after passing at the College, they shall pass the necessary examination at the Trinity House. (Masters passing for Line of Battle Ships are required to be thoroughly acquainted with the pilotage of the English Channel, - from the bank of soundings, at the entrance, to the North Foreland - including the pilotage of Plymouth Sound, Hamoaze, inside the Isle of Wight, and the Downs. The same qualifications are required from Masters of Frigates and Sloops, and from Second Masters, with the exception of the pilotage of Hamoaze)

Officers appearing before the Trinity Board for the purpose of passing in Pilotage must be qualified to take charge as Pilot of any of Her Majesty's Frigates for the coasts and ports for which Masters have hitherto been examined; and when they shall have served three years at least in Frigates or Sloops, they may be further examined as to their qualifications to take charge of Line of Battle Ships, but in this examination it will be required that they pass for the largest description of 1st Rates. In the event of an Officer serving abroad as Acting Master of a Line of Battle Ship, the time so served may reckon as part of the aforesaid three years.

The class of Ship, of which Officers are capable of taking charge as Pilots, will be stated in the certificate granted to them by the Trinity House.

All Officers desirous of being examined in Pilotage at the Trinity House, either for the rank of Second Master, or as to their qualifications to serve as Masters of Frigates, or of Line of Battle ships, should present themselves at the Admiralty, bringing with them a certificate of their birth, and also their original certificates for the entire period they have been employed in Her Majesty's Service, or in Merchant Ships, in each of which certificates the word Sobriety must be included. Similar certificates must be produced by Officers presenting themselves to pass in Navigation at the Royal Naval College.

Second Masters and Acting Second Masters, rejected at the Trinity Board Examination, will incur the same forfeitures as if they had been rejected at the Royal Naval College Examination in Navigation.

32.

FOR GUNNER. - The Candidate must produco satisfactory proof of being qualified, according to the foregoing Regulations, and must produce his certificate of service, ability, and conduct, and proof of his age; he is then to be examined as to his being in all respects a good practical Seaman; that he knows the use and exercise of the Great Guns, and how to secure them and lash their muzzles; that he knows the proportion of powder for guns of every description, the method ot filling the Cartridges, and the arrangement of them in the Magazine; also the management of shells and their Fuses, &c.; that he knows how to make wads for guns of different calibres, and how to make and fill musket cartridges: that he can write sufficiently well to keep a rough account of his stores in clear and intelligible writing, and that he understands the use of figures, and is in all respects capable of undertaking the duty and responsibility of a Gunner of one of Her Majesty's Ships; but to render a man eligible for confirmation as a Gunner, he must pass an examination, and obtain a First-Class Certificate for Gunner on board one of the Gunnery Depots.

The examination for the rank of Gunner is to be held, under the direction of the Commander-in-chief, or senior Officer present by a Master and three Gunners, in the presence of a Captain or Commander.

33

FOR BOATSWAIN. - The Candidate must produce satisfactory proof of being qualified, according to the foregoing Regulations, and must produce his Certificate of Service, Ability, and Conduct, and proof of his Age; the Examining Officers must satisfy themselves that he is a thorough practical Seaman; that he perfectly understands the rigging of Ships, according to the Regulations of the Navy; that he knows how to stow and secure the Anchors, how to erect and secure Sheers, and how to get the tops on and off the Lower Masts; that he can write sufficiently well to keep a rough account of his Stores, in clear and intelligible writing; that he understands the use of figures; and that he is, in all respects, capable of executing the duty of Boatswain of one of Her Maiesty's Ships.

The examination for the rank of Boatswain is to be held under the direction of the Commander-in-chief, or senior Officer present, by a Master and three Boatswains, in the presence of a Captain or Commander.

34.

FOR CARPENTER. - The Candidate must produce satisfactory proof of being qualified according to the foregoing Regulations, and must produce his Certificate of Service, Ability, and Conduct, and satisfactory proof of his being a good Shipwright, and proof of his Age; that he understands Caulking; that he knows how to fish Masts and Yards in a ready and an efficient manner, and to calculate the proper proportions for making them from rough Spars: that he can write sufficiently well to keep a rough Account of his Stores, in clear and intelligible writing; that he understands the use of figures; and that he is, in all respects, capable of executing the duty of Carpenter of one of Her Majesty's Ships.

The examination for the rank of Carpenter is to be held, under the direction of the Commander-in-chief, or senior Officer present, by a Master and three Carpenters, in the presence of a Captain or Commander.

§ III. - CIVIL BRANCH.

1.

FOR SURGEON OR ASSISTANT SURGEON. - No person will be admitted as an Assistant-Surgeon in the Royal Navy who shall not produce a Certificate of being registered under the Medical Act, and a Diploma from one of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of England, Edinburgh, or Dublin; from the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow; from Trinity College, Dublin, or from other Corporate Body legally entitled to grant a Diploma in Surgery; nor as a Surgeon, unless he shall produce a Certificate from one of the said Colleges, Faculty, or Corporate Body, founded on an examination to be passed subsequent to his appointment of Assistant Surgeon, as to his fitness for the situation of Surgeon in the Navy; and in every case the person producing such Diploma and Certificate shall also undergo a further examination, touching his qualification in all the necessary branches and points of Medicine and Surgery, both at the time of his entry, and after serving three years, to render himself eligible for Surgeon. Previously to the admission of Assistant-Surgeons into the Navy, it will be required that they produce proof of having received a preliminary classical education, and that they possess in particular a competent knowledge of Latin; also,

i.That they are of good moral character; the Certificate of which must be signed by the Clergyman of the Parish, or by a Magistrate of the District in which they have lately resided.
ii.That they have served an apprenticeship, or have been engaged for not less than six months in Practical Pharmacy.
iii.That their ago be not less than 20 years, nor more than 26 years.
iv.That they have actually attended a recognized Hospital for eighteen months subsequently to the age of 18, in which Hospital the average number of Patients is not less than 100.
v.That they have been engaged in actual dissections of the human body twelve months; the Certificate of which, from the Teacher, must state the number of subjects or parts dissected by the Candidate.
vi.That they have attended Lectures, &c., on the following subjects, at established Schools of Eminence, by Physicians or Surgeons of the recognized Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons in the United Kingdom, for periods not less than hereunder stated; observing, however, that such Lectures will not be admitted if the Teacher shall Lecture on more than one branch of Science, or if the Lectures on Anatomy, Surgery, and Medicine, be not attended during Winter Sessions of Six Months each.
AnatomyOr General Anatomy, 12 Months
and Comparative Anatomy, 6 Months
18 Months
SurgeryGeneral Surgery, 12 Months
Or Military Surgery, 6 Months
and General Surgery, 6 Months
12 "
Theory of Medicine
Practice of ditto
If the Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Medicine be given in conjunction, then the period required is 12 Months6 "
6 "
Clinical Lectures
(at an Hospital as above)
On the Practice of Medicine
On the Practice of Surgery
6 "
6 "
ChemistryOr Lectures on Chemistry, 3 Months
and Practical Chemistry, 3 Months
6 "
Materia Medica 6 "
MidwiferyAccompanied by Certificates stating the number of Midwifery cases personally attended6 "
Botany 3 "

In addition to the Tickets for the Lectures, Certificates must be produced from the Professors, etc., by whom the Lectures were given, stating the periods (in months) actually attended by the Candidates. The time also of actual attendance at an Hospital or Infirmary must be certified; and the Tickets, as well as Certificates of attendance, age, moral character, &c., must be produced by the Candidate previously to his examination.

Although the above are the only qualifications which are absolutely required in Candidates for the appointment of Assistant-Surgeon a favourable consideration will be given to the cases of those who have obtained the degree of M.D. at either of the Universities of Oxford. Cambridge, Edinburgh, Dublin, Glasgow, London, or Aberdeen; or who, by possessing a knowledge of diseases of the eye, and of any branch of science connected with the profession, such as Medical Jurisprudence, Natural History, Natural Philosophy, &c., appear to be more peculiarly eligible for admission into the Service, observing, however, that lectures on these or any other subjects cannot be admitted as compensating for any deficiency in those required by the Regulations. Candidates who may be admitted into the Naval Medical Service, must serve in whatever Ships, etc., they may be appointed to; and in the event of their being unable to do so from sea sickness, their names cannot be continued ou the Naval Medical List, nor can they, of course, be allowed half-pay.

2.

No Assistant-Surgeon will be promoted to the rank of Surgeon without a Certificate from one of the before-mentioned Colleges, Faculty, or Corporate Body; and not any Certificate of examination from any of the aforesaid Institutions shall be admitted toward the qualification for Surgeon, unless the Certificate shall be obtained on an examination passed after a period of not less than three years' actual service, observing, that no one can be admitted to an examination for Surgeon unless, as hereinbefore mentioned, be can produce a Certificate, together with the most satisfactory proof that he has performed, on the dead body, under the superintendence of a Professor or Teacher of known eminence, all the capital operations of surgery, and is perfectly competent to perform any operation with skill and dexterity, and thoroughly acquainted with the anatomy of the parts involved in such operation; without which qualification no one hereinafter can be promoted to the higher branches of the Service; and whenever Assistant-Surgeons already in the Service (whose professional education may not be in accordance with the above), obtain leave to study previously to their passing for Surgeon, they will be required on their examination to produce testimonials of their having availed themselves of the period of leave to complete their education agreeably to these Regulations generally.

3.

Assistant-Surgeons abroad, having three years' actual service may be provisionally examined for the rank of Surgeon, under the direction of the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer, by an Inspector or Deputy Inspector-General of Hospitals and Fleets (if there be either present), and three Surgeons, in the presence of a Captain or Commander.

4.

FOR ASSISTANT CLERK. - The Candidate will be examined (within three months after being nominated) by the Captain and a Naval Instructor of the Flag Ship at Portsmouth, assisted by two Paymasters appointed to that duty by the Commander-in-chief. The examinations will take place on the Second Wednesday in the months of March, June, September, and December.

He is to be required-

i.To produce a certificate of birth, or declaration thereof made before a magistrate, in proof of his being of the age required by the foregoing Regulations.
ii.To be in good health, and fit for the Service, that is, free from impediment of speech, defect of vision, rupture, or other physical inefficiency.
iii.To write English correctly from dictation, and in a good, legible hand.
iv.To read and translate French.
v.To have a competent knowledge of Arithmetic, including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions.
vi.To have a fair knowledge of Scripture and English History, and of Geography.

If the Candidate be found unqualified at his first examination, he may be re-examined on either the first or second subsequent examination days, provided he be not, at the time of such re-examination, beyond the age of 19. Should he fail in passing the second examination, he will be finally rejected.

On passing the required examination, and obtaining a certificate to that effect, the Candidate will at once be appointed by the Admiralty to one of Her Majesty's Ships.

5.

FOR CLERK. - i. An Assistant Clerk having served one year in that capacity, and being 17 years of age, may, under the direction of the senior Officer present, be examined touching his qualifications for the rating of Clerk, by three Paymasters, in the presence of a Captain or Commander. On this occasion the examining Officers are to ascertain that the Candidate has a competent knowledge of Arithmetic, including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions, and that he is so far acquainted with the method of keeping and rendering Ships' Books and Accounts, as to enable him efficiently to perform tho duties required of a Clerk of one of Her Majesty's Ships.

Should the Candidate be found duly qualified, he is to receive a certificate from the examining Officers to that effect; and the Officer in command of the Ship in which he is serving, may forthwith rate him as Clerk.

ii. A Clerk, when he shall have served one year and a-half in that rank, is, under the direction of the senior Officer present, to be examined by three Paymasters, in the presence of a Captain or Commander. At this examination the Candidate must, in addition to the points mentioned in the preceding Article, show that he has a competent knowledge of the allowance of Provisions to the Fleet, and of the mode of issuing them. First or Second-Class Certificates are to be given, according to the merit of the Candidate, or he is to be rejected if found incompetent; and the period that may elapse from the date of his being so rejected to the date of his passing this intermediate examination, shall not be allowed to him as Sea Time. If the requisite number of Officers cannot be obtained, the Candidate may be examined by the Officer in command of the Ship in which he is employed, assisted by such other competent Officers as may be procurable; but, in such case, he must be re-examined by proper Officers on the first opportunity that shall afterwards offer, and if he then passes successfully, he will receive a certificate to that effect, dated back to the day of the provisional intermediate examination; but if he be rejected, he will incur the forfeiture of subsequent service, as mentioned in this Article.

6.

FOR PAYMASTER OR ASSISTANT PAYMASTER. - A Clerk, from the date of his passing the intermediate examination referred to in the preceding Article, must continue to serve in that capacity for a further period of one year and a-half; and having completed such further period of service, he may, provided he shall have attained the full age of 21 years, be examined, under the direction of the senior Officer present, by three Paymasters, in the presence of a Captain or Commander, touching his qualifications for the office of Paymaster of one of Her Majesty's Ships.

At this examination the Candidate must prove his fitness for the various duties which he will be required to perform as Paymaster, particularly as to his knowledge of the relative value of English and Foreign Coins, Weights, and Measures, of the method of calculating the rates of Exchange, and of all other matters appertaining to the Cash transactions of Her Majesty's Ships; and likewise of the mode of receiving, issuing, and accounting for Provisions, Clothing, and Victualling Stores. He must also show that he has a competent knowledge of Arithmetic, including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions; -that he is acquainted with the Queen's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions, the Paymaster's Instructions, and with all the Orders that may be in force bearing on the duties of Paymasters of the Royal Navy.

If the Candidate be found duly qualified, the examining Officers are to give him a First or Second-Class Certificate, according to his merit, and the senior Officer present may appoint him, by Commission, dated on the day of the examination, to be Assistant Paymaster of the Ship in which he (the Candidate) may at the time be serving.

7.

In the event of an Assistant-Clerk, or a Clerk, serving in a Ship so far removed from other Ships, that the requisite number of examining Officers cannot be obtained, the examinations under the preceding Articles are to be conducted by the Officer in command of the ship in which the Candidate may be employed, assisted by such other competent Officers as may be procurable at the time; and on the Candidate passing satisfactorily, the said Officer in command may forthwith rate him in the capacity of Clerk, or grant him an acting order as Assistant-Paymaster, as the case may be: but in such instances the Candidate must be brought forward for re-examination by three Paymasters, in the presence of a Captain or Commander, on the first opportunity that shall afterwards offer; and, if he then passes, he will receive further certificates to that effect, dated back to the day of the provisional examination, and from the senior Officer present, confirmation in the rank of Clerk, or of Assistant-Paymaster, as the case may be; should, however, the Candidate be rejected, he is to revert to the rank he may have held at the time of the provisional examination, and to the pay of that rank, from the date of his being so rejected, the period during which he may have acted in the superior rating being only allowed to reckon as Sea Time, for the inferior capacity from which he may have been previously advanced.

8.

FOR SECOND-CLASS ASSISTANT ENGINEER. - The Candidate must produce certificates of servitude in a factory, or proof of his acquaintance with engine work, and of his practical abilities as a mechanic, as well as testimonials of good conduct and character; he must possess all the qualifications requisite to enable him after a short experience in the working of marine engines, to execute efficiently the duty of Second-Class Assistant Engineer of any of Her Majesty's Ships; he must be able to keep accounts, and make rough working sketches of engines and boilers; he must understand the general principle of the engine, and be acquainted with the names of the various parts and their uses; and be willing to exert himself as a mechanic and workman in the several contingencies that may arise in the engine room.

Candidates for the appointment of Second-Class Assistant Engineer will be examined, under the directions of the Admiralty, by a Chief Engineer and Inspector of Machinery of one of Her Majesty's Dockyards, in the presence of the Superintendent, or of such other Officer as may be nominated for the purpose.

[9.]

FOR FIRST-CLASS ASSISTANT ENGINEER. - A Second-Class Assistant Engineer, being eligible according to the foregoing Regulations, may be examined touching his qualifications for the appointment of First-Class Assistant Engineer, by order of the Commander-in-chief, or senior Officer present, - if at home, by the Chief Engineer and Inspector of Machinery of one of Her Majesty's Dockyards, in the presence of the Superintendent, or of such other Officer as may be nominated for the purpose, - and if abroad, by an Inspector of Machinery Afloat, and two Chief Engineers, in the presence of a Captain or Commander. The candidate must possess all the qualifications required of a Second-Class Assistant Engineer, - be fully competent to perform the various duties of a First-Class Assistant Engineer, and to take charge of a watch in the engine-room, when the steam is up at sea.

10.

FOR ENGINEER. - A First-Class Assistant Engineer, being eligible according to the foregoing Regulations, may be examined touching his qualifications for the appointment of Engineer, by order of the Commander-in-chief or senior Officer present, - if at home, by the Chief Engineer and Inspector of Machinery of one of Her Majesty's Dockyards, in the presence of the Superintendent, or of such other Officer as may be nominated for the purpose, - and if abroad, by an Inspector of Machinery afloat, and two Chief Engineers, in the presence of a Captain or Commander.

The Candidate must possess all the qualifications required of a First-Class Assistant Engineer; be fully competent to perform the various duties of an Engineer, - well acquainted with the principle upon which marine engines work in all their parts; able to adjust all the various working parts, and set right defects which may arise in the engines and boilers, - and in every way competent to take charge of the engines in the absence of the Chief Engineer.

11.

FOR CHIEF ENGINEER. - An Engineer, being eligible according to the foregoing Regulations, may be examined touching his fitness for the appointment of Chief Engineer. He must possess all the qualifications requisite to enable him to execute efficiently the duty of Chief Engineer of any one of Her Majesty's Ships; he must be able to keep accounts, make notes in the register of every particular of the working of the engines and boilers, - draw rough sketches of any part of the machinery, with figured dimensions fit to work from, - be able and willing to exert himself practically as a mechanic and workman when occasion requires, either in driving the engines, or packing, repairing or adjusting the working parts of the machinery, or making good the defects of boilers; he must possess a thorough knowledge of the construction and working of marine engines and boilers in all their parts, and be so far acquainted with the elements of theoretical mechanics as to comprehend the general principles on which the machine works; he must understand how to apply the Indicator, and draw the proper conclusions from the diagrams; and he must be acquainted with the principles of expansion, and able to prove, or at least to illustrate, the advantages to be derived from the use of expansive gear.

Candidates for the appointment of Chief Engineer will be examined at the Admiralty, by the Engineer-in-chief of the Navy, in the presence of the Controller of the Navy.

12.

An Engineer, or a First, or Second-Class Assistant-Engineer, who may be serving abroad, where the requisite number of proper examining Officers cannot be obtained, may be provisionally examined, under the directions of the senior Officer present, by an Inspector of Machinery Afloat, or by one, two, or three Chief Engineers, according as such Officers may be on the spot, in the presence of a Captain or Commander, or of the Officer commanding the Ship in which the candidate may at the time be borne; and no Engineer Officer is to be considered eligible for advancement to a rank or class for which he has not passed at least a provisional examination; neither will he be eligible for confirmation in any rank which he may have attained after passing provisionally, until he shall have passed the established examination before proper Officers, in accordance with the foregoing instructions.

13.

FOR NAVAL INSTRUCTOR. - A Candidate for an appointment as Naval Instructor will be examined at the Royal Naval College, under the directions of the Admiralty, and must be duly qualified in the following branches, namely:-

i.Common Arithmetic, including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions.
ii.The First six books of Euclid.
iii.Algebra, involving Simple and Quadratic Equations, with their application to Problems.
iv.Plane Trigonometry, theoretical and practical.
v.Mechanics.
vi.Hydrostatics.
vii.A competent knowledge of the Classics.
The final examination of Candidates for Naval Instructorships will comprise:-
viii.The usual College passing examination in Navigation.
ix.Nautical Astronomy, particularly the principles on which the various rules for finding the Latitude and Longitude are founded.
x.Observations with the Sextant, &c. The use of the Azimuth Compass and Chronometers, &c. Perfect proficiency will be expected in Observing.

Although the knowledge of French, as well as of other modern languages, and of the principles of drawing, is not considered as indispensable, it is very desirable that Naval Instructors should be able to give instruction in these branches of Education; and preference will always be given to such as possess these attainments.

Chaplains serving abroad, may, under the directions of the Commander-in-chief, be examined in the foregoing points by competent Officers nominated for the purpose, in the presence of a Captain or Commander; and no Chaplain is to be considered eligible for an appointment as acting Naval Instructor until he shall at least have passed, in every branch of knowledge referred to, a provisional examination for that office.


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